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1920 Olympics - History

1920 Olympics - History


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Olympics of 1920- Antwerp

Mens Athletics

100m Charles Paddock USA
200m Allen Woodring USA
400m Bevil Rudd SAF
800m Albert Hill GBR
1500m Albert Hill GBR
5000m Joseph Guillemot FRA
10,000m Paavo Nurmi FIN
Marathon Johannes Kolehmainen FIN
110 Hurdles Earl Thomson CAN
400m Hurdles Frank Loomis USA
3000m Steeplechase Percy Hodge GBR
4x100m relay USA
4x400m relay GBR
High Jump Richmond Landon USA
Pole Vault Frank Fross USA
Long Jump William Petersson SWE
Triple Jump Viho Tuulos FIN
Shotput Ville Porhola FIN
Discus Elmer Niklander FIN
Hammer Patrick Ryan USA
Javelin Jonni Myyra FIN
Decathlon Helge Lovland NOR
3000m Team USA
Cross Country Individual Paavo Nurmi FIN
Cross Country Team Finland
Pentatholon Ero Lehtonen FIN
56 lb. Weight Throw Patrick McDonald USA
Tug-of-War Great Britain
3000m Walk Ego Frigerio ITA
10,000m Walk Ugo Frigerio ITA

Men Swimming

400m Breaststroke Hakan Malmroth SWE
100m Freestyle Duke Paoa Kahanamoku USA
400m Freestyle Norman Ross USA
1500m Freestyle Norman Ross USA
100m Backstroke Warren Paoa Kealoha USA
200m Breaststroke Hakan Malmroth SWE
4x200m Freestyle relay USA
Springboard Diving Louis Kuehn USA
High Diving Clarence Pinkston USA
Plain High Dive Arvid Wallman SWE
Water Polo Great Britain/ Ireland

Women Swimming

100m Freestyle(Women Swimming) Ethelda Bleibtrey USA
400m Freestyle(Women Swimming) Ethelda Bleibtrey USA
4x100m Freestyle relay USA
Springboard Diving Aileen Riggin USA
Platform Diving Stefani Fryland-Clausen DEN

Boxing

Flyweight( Boxing) Frank Gennara USA
Bantamweight(Boxing) Clarence Walker SAF
Featherweight(Boxing) Paul Fritsch FRA
Lightweight(Boxing) Samuel Moshberg USA
Welterweight(Boxing) Albert" Bert" Schneider CAN
Middleweight( Boxing) Harry Mallin GBR
Light Heavyweight( Boxing) Edward Eagan USA
Heavyweight( Boxing) Ronald Rawson GBR

Greco Roman Wrestling

Featherweight(Greco Roman Wrestling) Oskar Friman FIN
Lightweight( Greco Roman Wrestling) Eemil Ware FIN
Middleweight( Greco Roman Wrestling) Carl Westergren SWE
Light Heavyweight( Greco Roman Wrestling) Claes Johanson SWE
Heavyweight( Greco Roman Wrestling) Adolf Lindfors SWE

Freestyle Wrestling


Featherweight( Freestyle Wrestling) Cuharles Edwin Ackerly USA
Lightweight( Freestyle Wrestling) Kalle Anttila FIN
Middleweight Eino Leino FIN
Light Hewavyweight( Freestyle Wrestling) Andres Larsson SWE
Heavyweight( Freestyle Wrestling) Robert Roth SUI

Men Fencing

Foil Individual Nedo Nadi ITA Foil Team Italy
Epee Individual Armand Massard FRA
Epee Team Italy
Sabre Individual Nedo Nadi ITA
Sabre Team Italy
Modern Pentathlon Individual
Gustav Dyrssen SWE

Rowing

Single Sculls John Kelly sen. USA
Double Sculls USA
Coxed Pairs Itlay
Coxed fours Switzerland
Eights USA

Yachting

Finn Monotype Class 12ft Netherlands
Finn Monotype Class 18ft Great Britain
6m Class Norway
6m Class 1907 rafting Belgium
6.5m Class Norway
7m Class Great Britain
8mClass Norway
8m Class rating 1907 Norway
10m Class 1919 rating Norway
12m Class rating 1919 Norway
12m Class rating 1907 Norway
30m2 Sweden
40m2 Sweden

Cycling

Individual Road Race Harry Stenqvist SWE
Team Time Trial France
1000m Sprint Maurice Peeters NETH
2000m Tandem Great Britain
Team Pursuit Race 4000m Italy
50km Track Race Henry George BEL

Equestrian Sports

Three Day Event Team Helmer Morner SWE
Three Day Event Team Sweden
Individual Dressage Janne Lundbald SWE
Individual Grand Prix Jumping Tommaso Lequio ITA
Grand Prix Jumping Sweden
Individual Figure Riding Bouckaert BEL
Team Figure Riding Belgium

Gymnastics

Individual All-round Competition Giorgio Zampori ITA
Team Combined Competition Italy
Football Belgium
Field Hockey Great Britain
Shooting
Free Pistol Karl Frederick USA
Rapid Fire Pistol Guilherme Paraense BRA
Small Bore Rifle Prone Lawrence Nuesslein USA
Military Revolver Team(30m) USA
Miltiary Revolver Team (50m) USA
Free Rifle Team USA
Free Rifle 3 Positions Morris Fisher USA
Indivdual Military Rifle 300m Prone Otto Olsen NOR
Individual Military Rifle 600m Prone Carl Hugo Johannsson SWE
Military Rifle Team 300 standing Denmark
Miltiary Rifle Team 300m Prone USA
Miltiary Rifle Team 600m Prone USA
Miltiary Rifle team 300+600m Prone USA
Miniture Rifle Teams USA
Running Deer ,single shot Otto Olsen NOR
Team running Deer, double shot Norway
Running Deer, double shot Ole Andreas Lilloe-Olsen NOR
Clay Pigeon Teqam USA
Mixed: Clay Pigeon Mark Arie USA

Tennis

Men-singles Louis Raymond
Men-doubles GBR
Women-singles Suzanne Lenglen
Women-doubles GBR
Mixed Doubles France
Mixed Doubels FRA

Other Sports

Polo GBR
Rugby USA
Weightlifting
Featherweight(weightlifting) Frans de Haes BEL
Lightweight(Weightlifting) Alferd Neuland EST
Middleweight(Weightlifting) Henri Gance FRA
Light Heavyweight(Weightlifitng) Ernest Cadine FRA
Heavyweight(Weightlifitng) Filippo Bottino ITA


1920 Summer Olympics

The 1920 Summer Olympics (French: Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1920 Dutch: Olympische Zomerspelen van de VIIe Olympiade German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1920), officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium.

In March 1912, during the 13th session of the IOC, Belgium's bid to host the 1920 Summer Olympics was made by Baron Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee and of the Royal Belgian Football Association. No fixed host city was proposed at the time.

The 1916 Summer Olympics, to be held in Berlin, capital of the German Empire, were cancelled due to World War I. When the Olympic Games resumed after the war, Antwerp was awarded hosting the 1920 Summer Games as tribute to the Belgian people. The aftermath of the war and the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 affected the Olympic Games not only due to new states being created, but also by sanctions against the nations that lost the war and were blamed for starting it. Hungary, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire were banned from competing in the Games. The newly formed Soviet Union chose not to attend the Games. Germany did not return to Olympic competition until 1928 and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele, starting with the Winter edition of 1922 (which predated the first Winter Olympics).

The United States won the most gold and overall medals.


History of the Olympics

Because of World War I there was no game held in 1916. Twenty nine (29) countries were represented at Antwerp, Belgium in 1920. Germany, Hungary, Austria, Bulgaria and Turkey were all excluded and the Societ Union chose not to attend.

(1920 Olympic Opening Ceremony Antwerp, Image via pinterest )

The VII Olympiad saw the introduction of the Olympic flag and the recitation of the Olympic oath. The ancient Games had opened with the taking of the oaths at the first official ceremony. The event took place in front a statue of Zeus Horkios (Zeus of the Oaths). A sacrifice was offered and the athletes swore that they had trained properly (for the prescribed 10 months) and that they would obey the rules of the Games. Interestingly, their trainers, and even father and brothers, would join them in similar oaths. Finally, the Hellanodikes (ancient judges/officials) swore to judge fairly and without bias. Baron de Cobertin was keen to adopt a similar cermeony of committment and took the sentiment of Ethelbert Talbot, Bishop of Pennsylvania who addressed the athletes at the 1908 London Olympic Games. He said:

"The most important thing in the Olympic games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph, but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered, but to have fought well."

Baron de Cobertin adopted this creed into an oath for the athletes to recite at each Olympic Games. During the opening ceremonies, one athlete recites the oath on behalf of all the athletes.

"In the name of all competitors, I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules that govern them, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honor of our teams."


( Antwerp 1920 Image via old.olympic.sk )

The Olympic oath was first taken during the 1920 Olympic Games by Belgian épée fencer Victor Boin. Now a judge from the host city recites the Olympic creed, which appears on the scoreboard during the Opening Ceremony. The 1920 Olympic Games were not well attended and plagued with bad weather.

(Joseph Guillermot Image via wikipedia )

French runner, Joseph Guillermot ran the 10,000m race just after he had eaten a large meal. On the finishing line he was sick over an opponent's shoes.


(Oscar Swahn Image via pinterest )

. At age 72, Swedish shooter Oscar Swahn earned a silver medal in the team double-shot running deer event to become the oldest medallist ever.

(Philip Noel-Baker Image via insidethegames )

The winner of the silver medal for the1500m was Philip Noel-Baker (GB) who later went on to become the only Olympian to ever be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.


(Video Courtesy: CHRONOS-MEDIA History by Youtube Channel)


The History Of Women In The Olympics Is Inspiring

It's obviously exciting to watch the 2016 Rio Olympic Games — what's better than sitting back with drinks and snacks in hand while seeing athletes exhibit superhuman strength? (That's obviously a rhetorical question.) But this year's Olympics are incredibly exciting for another reason — Team U.S.A. is sending a record number of 292 women to Rio. It's the highest number of women who have ever competed at the Olympics for one country. But this isn't the first time America's women athletes have made history at the Games — at the 2012 London Olympics, U.S. women won more medals than men for the first time ever.

We've come a long way — after all, it was only in 1900 that women were permitted to compete in the modern day Olympics for the first time. Although the Olympics were only revived in 1896, the 1900 Paris Games weren't a great year for women — a total of 997 athletes across all countries competed, but only 22 of those competitors were women. The only sports at the Paris Olympics were tennis, sailing, croquet, equestrian and golf — but only golf and tennis had events specifically for women. In the decades since, the history of women competing in the Olympics is inspiring — so let's take a look at how far we've come over the past 116 years.

The 1920s

At the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, women made up just 2.4 percent of the entire number of participants. The U.S. brought home a total of 41 gold medals (the most of any participating country) — but only four of the first place medals went to women:

  • Aileen Riggin (Diving)
  • Ethelda Bleibtrey (two for Swimming — 100m freestyle and 300m freestyle)
  • 4 × 100 m freestyle relay (Women's team)

Women only competed in eight events within two sports at the 1920 Olympics, so they had an impressive showing given the circumstances.

At the 1924 Winter Olympic Games in France, women were basically absent from Team U.S.A.'s roster — 22 men and 2 women competed, and America's sole gold medal was won by Charles Jetraw for speed skating.

The 1950s

The 1952 Winter Olympics were held in Oslo and the United States only brought home four gold medals — but half of them were earned by women. Andrea Mead Lawrence won two gold medals for alpine skiing events, while the male gold medalists, Dick Button and Ken Henry, won for figure skating and speed skating, respectively. It's pretty inspiring that even though male competitors continued to outnumber women by a significant margin, there was an even split when it came to gold medals that year.

At the 1952 Summer Olympics, the United States sent 286 athletes to Helsinki, where they competed in 133 events. Forty-one women were on Team U.S.A. — so, although they were still outnumbered in a major way, there had definitely been some progress over the past three decades. This time, America brought home the most gold medals — 40 in total. But, due to the fact that women athletes were greatly outnumbered by men and they were only able to compete in 16.8 percent of the events, just a handful of these gold medals went to women:

  • Mae Faggs, Catherine Hardy, Barbara Jones, and Janet Moreau (Athletics, Women's 4 × 100 m Relay)
  • Patricia McCormack (two for Diving — Springboard Diving & Platform Diving)

The 1970s

At the 1972 Winter Olympics in Japan, the United States didn't have an amazing showing — but the women did. Although Team U.S.A. sent 77 men and 26 women to the games, every single gold medal was earned by a woman:

  • Barbara Cochran (Alpine skiing)
  • Anne Henning (Speed Skating)
  • Dianne Holum (Speed Skating)

This marked a major turning point in giving women the opportunity to live up to their potential and get the opportunities they deserved. Of course, 1972 wasn't a great year for U.S. women at the Summer Olympics, which began just two months after Title IX was passed. They brought home 23 medals, compared to 71 for men. (But, again, the United States sent 316 men and 84 women to the games.) Still, women managed to win an impressive number of gold medals once again — and they totally dominated in the pool.

  • Doreen Wilber (Archery)
  • Maxine Joyce King (Diving)
  • Sandy Neilson (Swimming
  • Keena Rothhammer (Swimming)
  • Melissa Belote (two for Swimming)
  • Cathy Carr (Swimming)
  • Karen Moe Swimming
  • Shirley Babashoff, Jane Barkman, Jenny Kemp, and Sandy Neilson (Swimming freestyle relay)
  • Melissa Belote, Cathy Carr, Deena Deardurff, and Sandy Neilson (Swimming medley relay)

Four years after Title IX passed, it was time for the 1976 Olympic Games in Austria, where 76 men and 30 women competed for Team U.S.A. We certainly hadn't reached parity, but it was a big step in representation. Although America only won three gold medals in Austria, two of them went to women:

At the 1976 Summer Olympics in Canada, 396 competitors represented the United States — 278 men and 118 women. America won 34 gold medals, but not many went to women:

  • Luonn Ryan (Archery)
  • Jennifer Chandler (Diving)
  • Mary Tauskey (Member of Equestrian team comprised of both men and women)
  • Kim Peyton, Jill Sterkel, Shirley Babashoff, and Wendy Boglioli (Swimming freestyle relay)

On the surface this may seem disappointing, but Title IX had only been enacted a few years prior — so it would take time to see the full impact of the law.

The 1990s

Twenty years after the passage of Title IX, women dominated at the 1992 Winter Olympics in France. Once again, they were outnumbered by men, although not quite as dramatically as before — Team U.S.A. was comprised of 97 men and 50 women. The team won five gold medals and every single one was earned by a woman athlete:

  • Kristi Yamaguchi (Figure skating)
  • Donna Weinbrecht (Freestyle skiing)
  • Cathy Turner (Short track speed skating)
  • Bonnie Blair (two for Speed skating)

At the 1992 Summer Olympics, America won 37 gold medals — 14 of which were earned by women. Again, Team U.S.A. was represented by 355 men and 190 women, so these results prove that women athletes are a force to be reckoned with, despite the odds.

Women once again had an amazing showing at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. Out of the 646 competitors, there were 375 men and 271 women — and Team U.S.A. brought home 44 gold medals, 19 of which went to women. So, although women continued to be outnumbered, they more than held their own when it came to winning gold medals.

The 1996 Olympics were also important for women's soccer and women's gymnastics — both teams won gold medals in the all-around and it inspired young girls everywhere to pursue their Olympic dreams. In fact, 2016 gymnastics competitor Aly Raisman vividly remembers watching the 1996 games over and over again on a VHS tape owned by her mom.

At the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, women were less outnumbered than before (105 men and 81 women were on the team). Of course, there were still technically fewer women competing — but that didn't stop them from winning the majority of America's six gold medals that year:

  • Picabo Street (Alpine skiing)
  • Tara Lipinski (Figure skating)
  • Nikki Stone (Freestyle skiing)
  • The women's national ice hockey team

The 2000s

Here we are in the 21st century, and the representation of women at the Olympics has improved by leaps and bounds. At the 2012 London Olympics, not only did women bring home more medals than men — they were also responsible for 29 of the 46 Gold medals earned by Team U.S.A. This also marked the first year that women outnumbered men on Team U.S.A. — a pattern that has repeated itself in the 2016 Rio Games.

I know the amazing women athletes representing our country in Rio will make us proud — win or lose, their strength, work ethic, and perseverance is incredibly inspiring. And it's equally inspiring that women have begun to dominate a field that was once monopolized by men.


'Amateur' Professionals

Because of sports regulations, only amateurs could compete in Olympic ice hockey for most countries. The Soviets, by contrast, developed what was essentially a professional Olympic ice hockey team, though the country, as Soares noted, did not call it that:

Allowing the Soviets to field ice hockey teams composed of full-time athletes helped them to run roughshod over their Olympic opponents.

After the USSR broke up in 1991, some of the nations that had comprised the Soviet Union began to field their own teams. Nevertheless, the Commonwealth of Independent States, which was made up of most of the countries of the former USSR, managed to win gold in 1992.

Starting in 1998, teams from other countries, boosted by the inclusion of NHL players, began to take their turns atop the medal podium. In 2017, however, the NHL reversed its decision and prohibited its players from participating in Olympic hockey. The winning team in 2018 was made up of independent athletes from Russia, who were allowed to compete even though their country was officially banned from the Olympic Games because of a doping scandal.


Olympics: Brief history of the Modern Games: 1920 Antwerp

( Anterp 1920 Image via Architecture for the Games )

Because of World War I there was no game held in 1916. Twenty nine (29) countries were represented at Antwerp, Belgium in 1920. Germany, Hungary, Austria, Bulgaria and Turkey were all excluded and the Societ Union chose not to attend.

(1920 Olympic Opening Ceremony Antwerp, Image via pinterest )

The VII Olympiad saw the introduction of the Olympic flag and the recitation of the Olympic oath. The ancient Games had opened with the taking of the oaths at the first official ceremony. The event took place in front a statue of Zeus Horkios (Zeus of the Oaths). A sacrifice was offered and the athletes swore that they had trained properly (for the prescribed 10 months) and that they would obey the rules of the Games. Interestingly, their trainers, and even father and brothers, would join them in similar oaths. Finally, the Hellanodikes (ancient judges/officials) swore to judge fairly and without bias. Baron de Cobertin was keen to adopt a similar cermeony of committment and took the sentiment of Ethelbert Talbot, Bishop of Pennsylvania who addressed the athletes at the 1908 London Olympic Games. He said:

"The most important thing in the Olympic games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph, but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered, but to have fought well."

Baron de Cobertin adopted this creed into an oath for the athletes to recite at each Olympic Games. During the opening ceremonies, one athlete recites the oath on behalf of all the athletes.

"In the name of all competitors, I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules that govern them, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honor of our teams."


( Antwerp 1920 Image via old.olympic.sk )

The Olympic oath was first taken during the 1920 Olympic Games by Belgian épée fencer Victor Boin. Now a judge from the host city recites the Olympic creed, which appears on the scoreboard during the Opening Ceremony. The 1920 Olympic Games were not well attended and plagued with bad weather.

(Joseph Guillermot Image via wikipedia )

French runner, Joseph Guillermot ran the 10,000m race just after he had eaten a large meal. On the finishing line he was sick over an opponent's shoes.


(Oscar Swahn Image via pinterest )

. At age 72, Swedish shooter Oscar Swahn earned a silver medal in the team double-shot running deer event to become the oldest medallist ever.

(Philip Noel-Baker Image via insidethegames )

The winner of the silver medal for the1500m was Philip Noel-Baker (GB) who later went on to become the only Olympian to ever be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.


(Video Courtesy: CHRONOS-MEDIA History by Youtube Channel)


24 facts about the Olympics that will blow your mind

Even if you don’t care much about sports, there’s something magical about the Olympics: Athletes train for years to give their all and deliver the performance of a lifetime – often within a few seconds. We cry happy tears for the winners, sympathize with the losers, yell at the TV, and high-five strangers. Every two years, we adjust to a different time zone, feel a little bit more patriotic, and get really good at recognizing flags and national anthems from around the world.

In order to get into the Olympic spirit and the emotions that come with it, we put some facts about the Olympics that will blow your mind – so you have something to delve into while waiting for the next athletic record to be broken (or for the pizza delivery to arrive).

1. The first Olympic Games took place in the 8th century B.C. in Olympia, Greece. They were held every four years for for 12 centuries. Then, in the 4th century A.D., all pagan festivals were banned by Emperor Theodosius I and the Olympics were no more.

2. However, the athletic tradition was resurrected about 1500 years later: The first modern Olympics were held in 1896 in Greece.

3. In ancient Greece, athletes didn’t worry about sponsorship, protection, or fashion – they competed naked.

4. Back then, the games lasted five or six months.

5. Women have been allowed to compete in the Olympics since 1900.

6. From 1924-1992, the Winter and the Summer Olympics took place in the same year. Now, they’re on separate cycles and alternate every two years.

7. Only four athletes have won medals in both the Winter and the Summer Olympics. Only one of them, Christa Ludinger-Rothenburger, won medals in the same year.

8. During the 2012 London Games, the Olympic Village required 165,000 towels for a bit more than two weeks of activity.

9. The official languages of the games are English and French, complemented by the official language of the host country.

10. Tarzan competed in the Olympics: Johnny Weissmuller, an athlete-turned-actor who played Tarzan in 12 movies, won five gold medals in swimming in the 1920s.

11. From 1912-1948, artists participated in the Olympics: Painters, sculptors, architects, writers, and musicians competed for medals in their respective fields.

12. During the 1936 Berlin Games, two Japanese pole-vaulters tied for second place. Instead of competing again, they cut the silver and bronze medals in half and fused the two different halves together so that each of them had a half-silver and half-bronze medal.

13. The Olympic torch is lit the old-fashioned way in an ancient ceremony at the temple of Hera, in Greece: Actresses, wearing costumes of Greek priestesses, use a parabolic mirror and sun rays to kindle the torch.

14. From there, the torch starts its relay to the host city: It is usually carried by runners, but it has traveled on a boat, on an airplane (and the Concorde), on horseback, on the back of a camel, via radio signal, underwater, and in a canoe.

15. The unlit Olympic torch has also been taken to space several times.

16. The relay torch and the Olympic flame are supposed to burn during the whole event. In case the flame goes out, it can only be reignited with a backup flame, which has been lit in Greece as well, and with never a regular lighter!

17. The 2012 London Games were the first Olympics in which all participating countries sent female athletes.

18. The following sports are (sadly) not part of the Olympics anymore: solo synchronized swimming, tug of war, rope climbing, hot air ballooning, dueling pistol, tandem bicycle, swimming obstacle race, and plunge for distance. Luckily, live pigeon shooting was a one-shot and only part of the 1900 Olympics in Paris.

19. The five rings of the Olympic symbol – designed by Baron Pierre de Coubertin, co-founder of the modern Olympic Games – represent the five inhabited continents of the world.

20. The six colors – blue, yellow, black, green, red, and the white background – were chosen because every nation’s flag contains at least one of them.

21. The Olympic Games have been hosted by 23 different countries.

22. The first official Olympic mascot was Waldi, the dachshund, at the 1972 Games in Munich.

23. The 2016 Games in Rio will mark the first time the Olympics are held in South America.

24. During the 17 days of the 2016 Summer Olympics, 10,500 athletes from 205 countries will represent 42 different sports and participate in 306 competitions in Rio.

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Isabelle

Copywriter, commuter and coffee drinker. I'm not particularly obsessed with the letter C but it just so happens that I also like cake, chocolate, and cats. I'm Swiss but spent most of the 21st century in North America. Find me on Twitter with @isabellesagt


The Olympics

New Zealand’s Olympic story began in London in 1908, when three athletes competed as part of an ‘Australasian’ team. A century later we sent our largest-ever national team to Beijing, with 182 competitors flying the flag. In 2012 the Games returned to London and was one of New Zealand's most successful Olympics yet.

Over the years this country’s Olympians – more than 1000 of them in total – have produced plenty of memorable moments: from the pioneering efforts of Harry Kerr, Violet Walrond and Arthur Porritt to the track triumphs of Lovelock, Snell and Walker, and the golden achievements of our rowers, canoeists, equestrians and yachties. There have also been plenty of near misses and hard-luck stories. For many, it really was the taking part that counted.

But there has always been much more to the Olympics than the efforts of athletes. All too often, the Games have been marred by political wrangling, boycotts, controversy, even tragedy. From the Nazi spectacle of Berlin to the Montreal, Moscow and Los Angeles boycotts, New Zealand athletes have often been caught up in events far beyond their control. The modern Olympics have also seen a revolution in the speed and extent of media coverage, as well as the abandonment of its founders’ amateur ideals in favour of professionalism.


1920 sports: What happened 100 years ago? Champions, births, milestones, more

CLEVELAND, Ohio - We take a look back 100 years at the world of sports in 1920, from famous births to milestones and more. It was a year in which Cleveland won a World Series and the Olympics were held. From the Gipper to golf and beyond, here's our annual 100-year dive into history.

The Cleveland Indians win the best-of-nine World Series, beating the Brooklyn Robins five games to two. It is the team's first of two World Series championships. Cleveland has the best record in baseball, at 98-56.

An unassisted triple play is pulled off in the World Series. Cleveland second baseman Bill Wambsganss (shown) snags a line drive (one out), steps on second base to get the runner off the base (two out), then turns to tag the runner coming from first (three out). Only 15 unassisted triple plays have occurred in the Majors, with three by Cleveland players.

Indians players born this year:

Early Wynn, who won exactly 300 games and spent 10 of 23 years with the Indians.

Bob Kennedy played with the Indians from 1948 to 1954.

Wally Westlake, who played with Cleveland 1952-55. He died in September at age 98.

Bob Lemon, who played all 13 of his seasons with the Indians.

Dave Garcia is born. He managed the Indians 1979-82 and died in 2018 at age 97.

Ray Chapman dies after being struck by a pitch in August. He remains the only Major Leaguer to be killed by a pitched ball during a game.

Marion Motley, one of the first African-American players in the NFL, is born. He went to McKinley High School in Canton and played for the Cleveland Browns for the first eight of his nine seasons.

Jim Bagby is baseball's only 30-game winner. He leads the Majors with 31 victories and tops the American League with 30 complete games. Bagby remains the only Cleveland pitcher to win 30 or more games.

• Hall of Famer Stan Musial is born.

• Philadelphia's Cy Williams (15) and New York's Babe Ruth (54) are the home-run champs. It is Ruth's first season in New York.

• The batting champs come from teams in the same city: St. Louis Cardinals' Rogers Hornsby (.370) in the National League and Manchester, Ohio-born George Sisler (.407) of the St. Louis Browns in the American League.

• Chicago Cubs' Grover Alexander (173) and Cleveland's Stan Coveleski (133) are the strikeout leaders.

• The American Professional Football Association begins play. It will be renamed the National Football League in 1922.

George Gipp (shown) dies at age 25. He is referenced in Knute Rockne's famed locker-room speech, when the coach told his Notre Dame team: "Sometime, Rock, when the team is up against it, when things are wrong and the breaks are beating the boys - tell them to go in there with all they've got and win just one for the Gipper." Notre Dame beat Army that day. Ronald Reagan portrays Gipp in the 1940 movie, "Knute Rockne, All American."

• Harvard defeats Oregon, 7-6, in the game then known as the Tournament East-West Football Game - now Rose Bowl - in Pasadena, California. All the scoring is in the first half, and Oregon misses three drop-kick field-goal attempts. (Here's a game account.)

• Ohio State finished the 1920 regular season 7-0. The Buckeyes then lost on Jan. 1, 1921, in the Rose Bowl to California.

• Hall of Famer Steve Van Buren is born in Honduras. His father was a fruit inspector, and after his parents died when Van Buren was 10, he moved to New Orleans. He went to Louisiana State University before starring as a halfback with the Philadelphia Eagles in the NFL.

Gaston Chevrolet (shown in goggles) wins the Indianapolis 500. Fewer than six months later, he dies in a race in Los Angeles. The Swiss-born driver is one of three brothers that included Louis, co-founder of the car company of the same name. A wired.com story includes this anecdote about Gaston Chevrolet's final, and fatal, race: "When the race ended some hundred miles later, it turned out that Gaston Chevrolet had won the national race-car-driving championship on the basis of points from previous wins that year. Posthumous champion Gaston Chevrolet was 28 years old."

Jack Britton is welterweight champ. Britton tallied 340 fights in his career and holds the record for number of title bouts fought, at 37. Ernest Hemingway's story "Fifty Grand" is based on the Jack Britton-Mickey Walker 1922 fight in New York.

Cleveland's own Johnny Kilbane (shown) continues his reign as featherweight champion. He held the title from 1912 to 1923.

Peter Trivoulidas, a 19-year-old bus boy in New York, wins the Boston Marathon in 2:29:31. He beat out a field of 60 runners. The Boston Globe describes him as "a swarthy, heavy-legged native of Sparta, Greece."

The NHL's Ottawa Senators defeat the Pacific Coast Hockey Association champs Seattle Metropolitans 3 games to 2. According to NHL.com, when the Metropolitans arrived in Ottawa, "it became apparent that their red, white and green barber pole uniforms were all too similar to the Senators' red, white and black pattern. Ottawa agreed to play in white jerseys."

• The first practice range opens in Pinehurst, North Carolina.

• The PGA begins publishing "The Professional Golfer of America" magazine.

Chick Evans (shown in 1920) wins the U.S. Amateur title.

Clarence Griffin wins his third U.S. National Doubles title with Bill Johnston. You might know Griffin's nephew, who would go on to fame and fortune in the entertainment world: He's Merv Griffin (shown).

Player of the year is Howard Cann of New York University. He became a coach at his alma mater for 35 years and won 409 games. He also threw the shot put at the Olympics in 1920. He is shown on the far right as coach in 1949.

Penn is crowned national champs. The Quakers are coached by Lon Jourdet, who is believed to have invented the first zone defense.

Rod Holzman, who became the longtime New York Knicks coach, is born.

The now ubiquitous quintet of interlocking rings - a design that had been introduced in 1913 - is presented for the first time at the Olympic Games in Antwerp, Belgium.

Here's a smattering of medal-winning athletes and facts from the Games:

Boxing: Cleveland-born welterweight Albert Schneider wins gold. He had moved to Montreal at a young age and - despite not being a citizen yet - represented Canada in the Antwerp Games. His is the only gold of five boxing medals Canada earned in 1920. He finished his pro career 19-23-2.

Boxing: Light heavyweight Edward Eagan of the United States holds the rare distinction of being the only athlete to win gold in Summer and Winter games. He wins in Antwerp, then takes honors in bobsleigh in 1932 in Lake Placid, New York.

Swimming: American Duke Kahanamoku wins gold in the 100-meter freestyle. (He also won in 1912 in the same event.) He was an avid surfer, and in 1925 he saved the lives of several men whose boat had capsized. He used his surfboard to bring them to safety.

Swimming: American Ethelda Bleibtrey (shown) wins gold in the 100-meter freestyle. Hers might not be a household name, but a year before the Olympics she was given a summons for "nude swimming" because she swam without stockings, baring her legs. Outcry led to the abolishment of bulky leg-covering swimwear for women.

Diving: American Aileen Riggin becomes the first woman to win a gold in springboard diving. At the Cleveland Exposition in 1937, she helped organize and starred in the inaugural Billy Rose Aquacade. She was the last surviving gold medalist from the 1920 Antwerp Games.

Track and Field: Percy Hodge of Great Britain wins the 3,000-meter steeplechase. His sportsreference.com bio notes this about his training: He "had a highly unusual style of hurdling, which he brought to such a fine art that he could clear the barriers carrying a tray, complete with bottle and glasses, and not spill a drop."

Track and field: France's Joseph Guillemot wins the 5,000-meter run. Not bad for a guy whose lungs were damaged severely by mustard gas in World War I and whose heart was on the right side of his chest.


Watch the video: Olympic games 1896 ATHENS - GREECE Colorized (February 2023).

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