6 Things You May Not Know About Tecumseh

6 Things You May Not Know About Tecumseh

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1. Tecumseh lost three close family members to frontier violence.

Born in 1768 in present-day Ohio, Tecumseh lived during an era of near-constant conflict between his Shawnee tribe and white frontiersmen. At age 6, Lord Dunmore’s War broke out after a series of violent incidents, including one in which about a dozen Native Americans were plied with whiskey and challenged to a target shooting match before being slaughtered. Tecumseh’s father, Puckeshinwa, participated in the war, losing his life during a retreat across the Ohio River in the October 1774 Battle of Point Pleasant. As he lay dying, he supposedly told his son, Chiksika, to never make peace with the Virginians and to supervise the warrior training of his other male children. In 1788, a year after the U.S. Congress precipitated the settlement of Shawnee lands by passing the Northwest Ordinance, Chiksika was fatally wounded while attacking a stockade in present-day Tennessee. And in 1794, another of Tecumseh’s brothers, Sauwauseekau, was shot and killed at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

2. Tecumseh took part in the worst defeat ever inflicted by Native Americans on U.S. forces.

In fall 1790, the Shawnee and Miami tribes repelled an assault on their villages near modern Fort Wayne, Indiana, killing 183 U.S. troops in the process. President George Washington authorized a new campaign the following year, in which he put Governor Arthur St. Clair of the Northwest Territory in charge of some 2,300 men. On the march north from modern Cincinnati, hundreds of them deserted as the weather worsened and food supplies ran low. For nearly two months, the remaining troops had little contact with native tribes. On November 3, the soldiers set up camp along the Wabash River in western Ohio. Washington had advised St. Clair to “beware of surprise,” but he posted few guards and built no barricades. The next morning, as the soldiers prepared breakfast, a force of Native Americans attacked and immediately overran them. Poorly trained militiamen fled, whereas the regulars who kept their position were decimated. When the dust cleared a few hours later, at least 623 American soldiers and dozens of camp followers were dead, and hundreds more were wounded. In comparison, fewer than 300 U.S. troops died during the much-more-famous Battle of the Little Bighorn. Tecumseh did not play a major role in the clash with St. Clair, but he scouted the U.S. soldiers during their advance north. Throughout the battle itself, in which only 21 Native Americans were reportedly killed, he watched the rear trail to make sure no reinforcements arrived.

3. Tecumseh tried to unite all tribes against white expansion.

The victory over St. Clair proved to be short lived, as the 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers forced the Native Americans to give up most of present-day Ohio and part of Indiana. Tecumseh did not abide by such agreements, believing that every tribal leader who signed them “should have his thumb cut off.” He began envisioning a confederacy that would bring all of the tribes together—even longtime enemies—to resist the whites’ insatiable desire for land. Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa, best known as “the Prophet,” also started preaching against cultural assimilation. In 1808 the brothers founded Prophetstown in northwestern Indiana, which they envisioned as the capital of their confederacy. That same year, Tecumseh met with British officials in Canada. He then traveled widely in the Midwest, gaining followers among such tribes as the Seneca, Wyandot, Sac, Fox, Winnebago, Potawatomi, Kickapoo, Chippewa, Ottawa, Delaware, Miami and, of course, Shawnee. Tecumseh even made it as far south as present-day Alabama and Mississippi, where he preached with limited success to Chickasaws, Choctaws and Creeks. “I have heard many great orators, but I never saw one with the vocal powers of Tecumseh, or the same command of the muscles in his face,” recalled a white soldier who saw one of his speeches.

4. The U.S. Army invaded while Tecumseh was away.

While Tecumseh was down south in fall 1811, William Henry Harrison, then governor of the Indiana Territory, decided to march on Prophetstown. Tecumseh had told his brother to avoid war with the Americans, but when soldiers advanced to within a mile of the town on November 6, the Prophet greenlighted a preemptive strike. He assured his followers that white bullets could not hurt them, and during the next morning’s fighting he purportedly sat on a rock singing incantations. In the end, though the Native Americans likely suffered fewer casualties than their opponents in the Battle of Tippecanoe, they were forced to retreat and abandon Prophetstown. Harrison then burned it to the ground. Upon returning home in January 1812, Tecumseh found his brother’s reputation destroyed and his confederacy badly weakened.

5. Tecumseh allied himself with the British during the War of 1812.

When the War of 1812 broke out in June of that year, Tecumseh and his supporters immediately joined with the British. During one of the first engagements of the conflict, U.S. General William Hull and about 2,000 men invaded Canada from Detroit. They were quickly repelled, however, in part due to Tecumseh’s interception of a supply train. British commander Isaac Brock, who became friends with Tecumseh, subsequently besieged Fort Detroit. In an act of psychological warfare, Brock informed Hull that his Native American allies “will be beyond my control the moment the contest commences.” A terrified Hull surrendered a day later. The following year, Tecumseh participated in failed sieges of two forts in Ohio. He then reluctantly retreated with the British back into Canada. U.S. troops under Harrison’s command caught up with the British and Native Americans along the Thames River, winning a battle there that cost Tecumseh his life. Afterwards, the surviving Shawnee divided into groups and dispersed in various directions. Most eventually ended up in Oklahoma.

6. Many myths sprang up around Tecumseh.

No one knows for sure who killed Tecumseh, but that didn’t stop a number of people from taking credit. Richard M. Johnson, for example, rode his reputation as Tecumseh’s killer to the vice presidency in 1836. Four years later Harrison used the slogan, “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too,” to take the White House. Meanwhile, since Tecumseh did no interviews and left behind no letters or journals, storytellers filled the gaps in his life with wild tales. One account held that he courted the blond, blue-eyed daughter of an Indian fighter, with whom he read the Bible and Shakespeare, and another held that his great-grandfather was South Carolina’s governor. Both accounts, and many others like them, are almost certainly untrue.

10 Facts About the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

On Veterans Day, 1921, President Warren G. Harding presided over an interment ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery for an unknown soldier who died during World War I. Since then, three more soldiers have been added to the Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier) memorial—and one has been disinterred. Below, a few things you might not know about the historic site and the rituals that surround it.


Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

To ensure a truly random selection, four unknown soldiers were exhumed from four different WWI American cemeteries in France. U.S. Army Sgt. Edward F. Younger, who was wounded in combat and received the Distinguished Service Medal, was chosen to select a soldier for burial at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington. After the four identical caskets were lined up for his inspection, Younger chose the third casket from the left by placing a spray of white roses on it. The chosen soldier was transported to the U.S. on the USS Olympia, while the other three were reburied at Meuse Argonne American Cemetery in France.


One had served in the European Theater and the other served in the Pacific Theater. The Navy’s only active-duty Medal of Honor recipient, Hospitalman 1st Class William R. Charette, chose one of the identical caskets to go on to Arlington. The other was given a burial at sea.


WikimediaCommons // Public Domain

The soldiers were disinterred from the National Cemetery of the Pacific in Hawaii. This time, Army Master Sgt. Ned Lyle was the one to choose the casket. Along with the unknown soldier from WWII, the unknown Korean War soldier lay in the Capitol Rotunda from May 28 to May 30, 1958.


Medal of Honor recipient U.S. Marine Corps Sgt. Maj. Allan Jay Kellogg, Jr., selected the Vietnam War representative during a ceremony at Pearl Harbor.


Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

Thanks to advances in mitochondrial DNA testing, scientists were eventually able to identify the remains of the Vietnam War soldier. On May 14, 1998, the remains were exhumed and tested, revealing the “unknown” soldier to be Air Force 1st Lt. Michael Joseph Blassie (pictured). Blassie was shot down near An Loc, Vietnam, in 1972. After his identification, Blassie’s family had him moved to Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis. Instead of adding another unknown soldier to the Vietnam War crypt, the crypt cover has been replaced with one bearing the inscription, “Honoring and Keeping Faith with America’s Missing Servicemen, 1958-1975.”


The Tomb was designed by architect Lorimer Rich and sculptor Thomas Hudson Jones, but the actual carving was done by the Piccirilli Brothers. Even if you don’t know them, you know their work: The brothers carved the 19-foot statue of Abraham Lincoln for the Lincoln Memorial, the lions outside of the New York Public Library, the Maine Monument in Central Park, the DuPont Circle Fountain in D.C., and much more.


Tomb Guards come from the 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment "The Old Guard." Serving the U.S. since 1784, the Old Guard is the oldest active infantry unit in the military. They keep watch over the memorial every minute of every day, including when the cemetery is closed and in inclement weather.


Members of the Old Guard must apply for the position. If chosen, the applicant goes through an intense training period, in which they must pass tests on weapons, ceremonial steps, cadence, military bearing, uniform preparation, and orders. Although military members are known for their neat uniforms, it’s said that the Tomb Guards have the highest standards of them all. A knowledge test quizzes applicants on their memorization—including punctuation—of 35 pages on the history of the Tomb. Once they’re selected, Guards “walk the mat” in front of the Tomb for anywhere from 30 minutes to two hours, depending on the time of year and time of day. They work in 24-hour shifts, however, and when they aren’t walking the mat, they’re in the living quarters beneath it. This gives the sentinels time to complete training and prepare their uniforms, which can take up to eight hours.


The Tomb Guard badge is the least awarded badge in the Army, and the second least awarded badge in the overall military. (The first is the astronaut badge.) Tomb Guards are held to the highest standards of behavior, and can have their badge taken away for any action on or off duty that could bring disrespect to the Tomb. And that’s for the entire lifetime of the Tomb Guard, even well after his or her guarding duty is over. For the record, it seems that Tomb Guards are rarely female—only three women have held the post.


Everything the guards do is a series of 21, which alludes to the 21-gun salute. According to

The Sentinel does not execute an about face, rather they stop on the 21st step, then turn and face the Tomb for 21 seconds. They then turn to face back down the mat, change the weapon to the outside shoulder, mentally count off 21 seconds, then step off for another 21 step walk down the mat. They face the Tomb at each end of the 21 step walk for 21 seconds. The Sentinel then repeats this over and over until the Guard Change ceremony begins.

Chief Tecumseh Poem

At the end, it had this amazing poem by Native American Shawnee Chief, Tecumseh.

The poem moved me very deeply and the first friend I spoke with today also mentioned the poem so I had to find it and share it. I hope it encourages you, lifts your spirit and helps you to strive for the greatness that you were created for. Respect others and demand that they respect you. Work hard to beatify the things around you.
– Wayne

With that I give you Tecumseh

So live your life that the fear of death can never enter your heart. Trouble no one about their religionrespect others in their view, and demand that they respect yours. Love your life, perfect your life, beautify all things in your life. Seek to make your life long and its purpose in the service of your people. Prepare a noble death song for the day when you go over the great divide.

Always give a word or a sign of salute when meeting or passing a friend, even a stranger, when in a lonely place. Show respect to all people and grovel to none.

When you arise in the morning give thanks for the food and for the joy of living. If you see no reason for giving thanks, the fault lies only in yourself. Abuse no one and no thing, for abuse turns the wise ones to fools and robs the spirit of its vision.

When it comes your time to die, be not like those whose hearts are filled with the fear of death, so that when their time comes they weep and pray for a little more time to live their lives over again in a different way. Sing your death song and die like a hero going home.

A Sorrow in Our Heart: The Life of Tecumseh

I&aposm going to start off saying that I&aposm a historian and I focus on American Indian Frontier Wars, and with that being said, this is a good book with a few caveats. First of all this is historical FICTION, it is not a biography nor is it strictly factual. It is a good read in that it keeps the reader&aposs attention and encourages the reader to finish the book. And that&aposs high praise for what I&aposm about to say about "A Sorrow in Our Hearts."

So, how is it factually? When dealing with background minutiae I'm going to start off saying that I'm a historian and I focus on American Indian Frontier Wars, and with that being said, this is a good book with a few caveats. First of all this is historical FICTION, it is not a biography nor is it strictly factual. It is a good read in that it keeps the reader's attention and encourages the reader to finish the book. And that's high praise for what I'm about to say about "A Sorrow in Our Hearts."

So, how is it factually? When dealing with background minutiae, Eckert has done extensive research in Indian attacks and behaviors, which lends greatly to the "believability." But what about dealing with his main characters? Eckert has a few historical myths that he likes to push off as fact, especially the myth that Blue Jacket was a captured American boy. There has been much scholarship about this issue and it is patently incorrect. I could have excused this in "The Frontiersmen," before much of the scholarship came out, BUT this came out almost 25 years later and he still holds that Blue Jacket is a white man. I have some other issues with the treatment of Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh's perspicacious ability. ummmmmmm, how based in fact is that among a culture with little native documentation? These aspects are lost on anyone not familiar with the subject matter, and the voluminous notes (almost all of which are about the background minutiae) just hide this from laymen.

But, I think the main issue is that this book is passed off as a biography. It's simply not, and that's misleading to the non-historian, which is almost everyone who reads this book. Can I suggest this book? Yes, with the caveat that this is not a factual biography, it is a work of fiction. If you want a Biography on Tecumseh, John Sugden wrote an excellent one. Similarly, Sugden wrote a wonderful biography on Blue Jacket, please read those if you want a biography on these truly great men. . more

Well researched and wonderfully written story of the life of a charismatic, wise, driven native leader, who was cagey, brave, legendary for his battle skills, his coolness under pressure, his ability to turn an apparent rout against the aggressors. He lived from mid - 1700&aposs to 1813 when he was killed in battle. He was Shawnee, but his legacy was his dream and realization, in large part, of the unification of historically warring tribes in a joint effort to repel the white "shamenese" incursions Well researched and wonderfully written story of the life of a charismatic, wise, driven native leader, who was cagey, brave, legendary for his battle skills, his coolness under pressure, his ability to turn an apparent rout against the aggressors. He lived from mid - 1700's to 1813 when he was killed in battle. He was Shawnee, but his legacy was his dream and realization, in large part, of the unification of historically warring tribes in a joint effort to repel the white "shamenese" incursions into the Ohio country being the land west and north of the Ohio river. The "Americans" used a tactic of getting a tribal chief who had no title or right to a tract of land either inebriated or entrusted by large gifts and promises of substantial sums of money to deed the land to the whites. Tecumseh saw that if he could unit the tribes they could resist these "legal" acquisitions of their land, and, if necessary, have the combined strength to fight off the whites. His efforts were undermined by jealous, greedy and short-sighted tribal chiefs who continued to bargain with the whites who, so very numerous and well armed, would rely on their ill-gotten "titles" to land to justify settling of the land. In the early years Tecumseh and other natives were able to drive off these settlers, but by 1800 their numbers were so great and the US government so well established and armed that the only hope of excluding them from the Ohio country was for the natives to throw their support behind the British who seemed more inclined to honour the natives land claims. The war of 1812 had some victories, but not so far as the Ohio was concerned.

I found myself awed by Tecumseh's intelligence, command of numerous languages, especially English, his unigue abilities to "prophecy". Sometimes his prophecies were nothing more than a keen intellect, ability to read, and knowledge of when an eclipse was to occur, which served him well on one occassion to convince tribes that he had prophetic powers. However, there were some prophecies which no one could have predicted and about which he was very specific, having sent out notice to all tribes of when a large meteor would streak across the sky (which it did with great effect) and that thirty days later the earth would shake with great feriosity (which it did, over a length of 1000 miles, right through the Missouri to the Niagra area, causing cataclismic damage, and in an area not known for earthquakes).

Another thing which set him apart was his abhorence, from an early age, of the torture of defenseless enemies. When he was fifteen he'd had enough and told his tribal chief that such torture was a sign of weakness, not of bravery and that he would challenge anyone who did it again. This was one of the tenants of his basic philosophy which he was able to convince most tribes of. Also, all his followers were not permitted to consume alcohol.

His story is inspirational, sad, enlightening relative to native life and its understanding of living with the earth, and an insightful perspective on a great man whose true desire was peace, just to be left to live the life he had been raised with and loved, a life of living off the land.

Enthralling and dull by turn, "A Sorrow in Our Heart" follows the pre-birth to pretty much the moment of death for the Shawnee warrior Tecumseh. The book really only runs about 678 pages, with the rest being a trove of footnotes, primary sources, bibliography and index (I leafed for a bit through the footnotes after finishing the narrative). It is an impressive work that would likely be best enjoyed by casual historians of the colonial and post-colonial Mid-Atlantic/Midwest.

Tecumseh - the chief Enthralling and dull by turn, "A Sorrow in Our Heart" follows the pre-birth to pretty much the moment of death for the Shawnee warrior Tecumseh. The book really only runs about 678 pages, with the rest being a trove of footnotes, primary sources, bibliography and index (I leafed for a bit through the footnotes after finishing the narrative). It is an impressive work that would likely be best enjoyed by casual historians of the colonial and post-colonial Mid-Atlantic/Midwest.

Tecumseh - the chief who was never actually a chief. His life pretty much spans the time between the first American Revolution and the War of 1812, and his journeys take him all over the country.

Other reviews I've read on here from folk whom I presume to be historians by trade or by training indicate that this book is fictionalized history, and that is probably true for the bulk of it. The preface attempts to describe how Eckert was able to create many of the conversations where no records of those conversations exist, but in my opinion, many creative liberties had to have been taken, or else this would have been a book of mostly places, names, and dates.

For a book about the life of Tecumseh, the first quarter to first third of the book doesn't really feature him at all. There is a LOT of flashbacking and historical scene setting, describing how in the years prior to the American Revolution saw the trickle of white settlers turn into a stream, then into a flood. The increasingly violent encounters between the various tribes and the sometimes-organized, sometimes-not settlers as the encroachment continued, really casts a different light on the white-washed history I was taught. Yet, you get to spend lots of time with Tecumseh's father, Pucksinwah, and his his brother Chiksika, before the story gets turned over to the main subject.

I remarked at various points while reading, "White people are awful," and, "The irony is not lost on me that I'm a white dude sitting in Central Illinois in 2021 rooting for the First People to drive the settlers out of Ohio." Like watching "Titanic," but hoping the boat doesn't sink.

Of personal interest, the book somehow links the various places I've lived and travelled in my life (from Pittsburgh to the Susquehanna Valley, to Chicago, to the Sangamon Valley, then as far west as the Sioux tribes of the Dakotas, where I have family. I think I'll now be able to see an overlay in my mind when I visit these places in the future of what the landscape and populations looked like at the turn of the 19th century.

It was also fascinating to read of well-known and even revered American figures considered so vile by the indigenous people - Washington, Jefferson, William Henry Harrison. Even Daniel Boone has a significant role in the book's earlier stages - seen very much as a foe, but at the same time respected as a formidable frontiersman.

Accounts of the various battles, great victories and crushing defeats for the various tribes throughout the years were the most riveting aspect, whereas the politics of both the tribes and the relations between native and American or native and British bogged things down considerably. The endless flashbacks were also a bit tiresome. A chapter would begin with something tumultuous. then we'd flash back for a few pages of how we got to that point, and replay the tumult all over again. That device works once or twice, but it seemed very time a new segment of the story opened, that's how it would proceed.

The accounts of Tecumseh's family being virtually flawless soothsayers was also a bit far-fetched (his father, his older brother and he, himself, all "know" the day they're going to die), and the level and volume of foreshadowing early on when it came to Tecumseh's youngest-of-triplets brother pretty much gives away how all of Tecumseh's plan to unite all the tribes of the nation will eventually fail.

Still, learning who Fort Wayne is named after and the role that city played, how Cincinnati began being settled, how other forts got their start and/or what happened to those "forts you might have heard of," reading some of the British side of the War of 1812 that had nothing to do with the burning of Washington, D.C. nor Andrew Jacksons victories in the South, also plugged some gaps in my knowledge of American history.

I can't help but feel that Tecumseh is treated here a bit messianically, more folk hero than man, whose faults are both few and small. Still, without knowing more, it does seem like whoever he was, he came the closest to bringing the various tribes together in an attempt to push the white settlers ever Eastward. Further, it makes total sense that either pride or shortsightedness or complacency of the various chiefs kept full cooperation from occurring. It also makes total sense that things like The Louisiana Purchase is fully null and void because the land was never the French's to sell to the Americans.

The one thing this book absolutely does well is makes you deeply feel the frustration of the First People as their destinies were being decided for them by those who had no business doing so. . more

Top 10 cool things about stars

1. Every star you see in the night sky is bigger and brighter than our sun. Of the 5,000 or so stars brighter than magnitude 6, only a handful of very faint stars are approximately the same size and brightness of our sun and the rest are all bigger and brighter. Of the 500 or so that are brighter than 4th magnitude (which includes essentially every star visible to the unaided eye from a urban location), all are intrinsically bigger and brighter than our sun, many by a large percentage. Of the brightest 50 stars visible to the human eye from Earth, the least intrinsically bright is Alpha Centauri, which is still more than 1.5 times more luminous than our sun, and cannot be easily seen from most of the Northern Hemisphere.

2. You can’t see millions of stars on a dark night. Despite what you may hear in TV commercials, poems and songs, you cannot see a million stars … anywhere. There simply are not enough close enough and bright enough. On a really exceptional night, with no Moon and far from any source of lights, a person with very good eyesight may be able to see 2000-2500 stars at any one time. (Counting even this small number still would be difficult.). So the next time you hear someone claim to have seen a million stars in the sky, just appreciate it as artistic license or exuberant exaggeration – because it isn’t true!

3. Red hot and cool ice blue – NOT! We are accustomed to referring to things that are red as hot and those that are blue as cool. This is not entirely unreasonable, since a red, glowing fireplace poker is hot and ice, especially in glaciers and polar regions, can have a bluish cast. But we say that only because our everyday experience is limited. In fact, heated objects change color as their temperature changes, and red represents the lowest temperature at which a heated object can glow in visible light. As it gets hotter, the color changes to white and ultimately to blue. So the red stars you see in the sky are the “coolest” (least hot), and the blue stars are the hottest!

4. Stars are black bodies. A black body is an object that absorbs 100 percent of all electromagnetic radiation (that is, light, radio waves and so on) that falls on it. A common image here is that of a brick oven with the interior painted black and the only opening a small window. All light that shines through the window is absorbed by the interior of the oven and none is reflected outside the oven. It is a perfect absorber. As it turns out, this definition of being perfect absorbers suits stars very well! However, this just says that a blackbody absorbs all the radiant energy that hits it, but does not forbid it from re-emitting the energy. In the case of a star, it absorbs all radiation that falls on it, but it also radiates back into space much more than it absorbs. Thus a star is a black body that glows with great brilliance! (An even more perfect black body is a black hole, but of course, it appears truly black, and radiates no light.)

5. There are no green stars. Although there are scattered claims for stars that appear green, including Beta Librae (Zuben Eschamali), most observers do not see green in any stars except as an optical effect from their telescopes, or else an idiosyncratic quirk of personal vision and contrast. Stars emit a spectrum (“rainbow”) of colors, including green, but the human eye-brain connection mixes the colors together in a manner that rarely if ever comes out green. One color can dominate the radiation, but within the range of wavelengths and intensities found in stars, greens get mixed with other colors, and the star appears white. For stars, the general colors are, from lower to higher temperatures, red, orange, yellow, white and blue. So as far as the human eye can tell, there are no green stars.

6. Our sun is a green star. That being said, the sun is a “green” star, or more specifically, a green-blue star, whose peak wavelength lies clearly in the transition area on the spectrum between blue and green. This is not just an idle fact, but is important because the temperature of a star is related to the color of its most predominate wavelength of emission. (Whew!) In the sun’s case, the surface temperature is about 5,800 K, or 500 nanometers, a green-blue. However, as indicated above, when the human eye factors in the other colors around it, the sun’s apparent color comes out a white or even a yellowish white.

7. Our sun is a dwarf star. We are accustomed to think of the sun as a “normal” star, and in many respects, it is. But did you know that it is a “dwarf” star? You may have heard of a “white dwarf,” but that is not a regular star at all, but the corpse of a dead star. Technically, as far as “normal” stars go (that is, astronomical objects that produce their own energy through sustained and stable hydrogen fusion), there are only “dwarfs,” “giants” and “supergiants.” The giants and supergiants represent the terminal (old age) stages of stars, but the vast majority of stars, those in the long, mature stage of evolution (Main Sequence) are all called “dwarfs.” There is quite a bit of range in size here, but they are all much smaller than the giants and supergiants. So technically, the sun is a dwarf star, sometimes called “Yellow Dwarf” in contradiction to the entry above!

8. Stars don’t twinkle. Stars appear to twinkle (“scintillate”), especially when they are near the horizon. One star, Sirius, twinkles, sparkles and flashes so much some times that people actually report it as a UFO. But in fact, the twinkling is not a property of the stars, but of Earth’s turbulent atmosphere. As the light from a star passes through the atmosphere, especially when the star appears near the horizon, it must pass through many layers of often rapidly differing density. This has the effect of deflecting the light slightly as it were a ball in a pinball machine. The light eventually gets to your eyes, but every deflection causes it to change slightly in color and intensity. The result is “twinkling.” Above the Earth’s atmosphere, stars do not twinkle.

9. You can see 20 quadrillion miles, at least. On a good night, you can see about 19,000,000,000,000,000 miles, easily. That’s 19 quadrillion miles, the approximate distance to the bright star Deneb in Cygnus. which is prominent in the evening skies of Fall and Winter. Deneb is bright enough to be seen virtually anywhere in the Northern hemisphere, and in fact from almost anywhere in the inhabited world. There is another star, Eta Carina, that is a little more than twice as far away, or about 44 quadrillion miles. But Eta Carina is faint, and not well placed for observers in most of the Northern hemisphere. Those are stars, but both the Andromeda Galaxy and the Triangulum Galaxy are also visible under certain conditions, and are roughly 15 and 18 quintillion miles away! (One quintillion is 10^18!)

10. Black holes don’t suck. Many writers frequently describe black holes as “sucking” in everything around them. And it is a common worry among the ill-informed that the so-far hypothetical “mini” black holes that may be produced by the Large Hadron Collider would suck in everything around them in an ever increasing vortex that would consume the Earth! “Say it ain’t so, Joe!” Well, I am not Shoeless Joe Jackson, but it ain’t so. In the case of the LHC, it isn’t true for a number of reasons, but black holes in general do not “suck.”

This not just a semantic distinction, but one of process and consequence as well. The word “suck” via suction, as in the way vacuum cleaners work, is not how black holes attract matter. In a vacuum cleaner, the fan produces a partial vacuum (really, just a slightly lower pressure) at the floor end of the vacuum, and regular air pressure outside, being greater, pushes the air into it, carrying along loose dirt and dust.

In the case of black holes, there is no suction involved. Instead, matter is pulled into the black hole by a very strong gravitational attraction. In one way of visualizing it, it really is a bit like falling into a hole, but not like being hoovered into it. Gravity is a fundamental force of Nature, and all matter has it. When something is pulled into a black hole, the process is more like being pulled into like a fish being reeled in by an angler, rather than being pushed along like a rafter inexorably being dragged over a waterfall.

The difference may seem trivial, but from a physical standpoint it is fundamental.

So black holes don’t suck, but they are very cool. Actually, they are cold. Very, very cold. But that’s a story for another time.

The sun in extreme ultraviolet, false color green. The human eye cannot see at this wavelength at all. Image via SOHO, ESA, NASA.

Bottom line: Here’s a collection of 10 unexpected, intriguing facts about the stars of our universe – including our sun – that you probably didn’t know!

Looking for the G-Spot? 6 Things to Know

Is the G-spot real? The evidence is a bit mysterious because the “spot” doesn’t appear to be a distinct structure, but, rather, a cluster of nerves and tissue that engorges or changes in sensation when aroused. And not all women feel it. Some women feel extreme pleasure when the spot is stimulated, but others…not a thing.

Here are 6 things to know about this sexy erogenous zone:

Where is it? The G-spot is on the roof of the vagina at about 12 o’clock when the woman is lying on her back. It is about 2.5-3 inches in the vagina directly below her urethra. The angle for self-exploration is essentially backwards for the woman so the location makes it nearly impossible to discover the spot with her own fingers.

Does every woman have it? Essentially, yes. But the degree of sexual sensation in the spot varies widely from woman to woman and can vary even within the same woman depending on the timing of arousal, time of day, time of month and season of life.

Best technique to touch it. Fingers provide the best access to the g-spot. If you are firmly but gently using a “come-hither” curl to your stroke you might feel a slight increase in firmness about the size of a quarter.

How do I know I’m touching the right spot? Some lovers report that they can’t feel any tissue differential with their fingers. Your female partner may report a delightful sensation guiding you to the correct area. Or she may say that she feels the need to urinate – this means you are at the right spot but at the wrong time. She will need considerably more general arousal before her body will translate this same touch as sexually pleasurable.

Can intercourse provide G-spot stimulation? Yes, and certain positions bring the penis into contact with the G-spot more than others. Two ways to try: 1) woman lying on her back with her legs curled up tilts her pelvis or over his elbows tilts her pelvis upwards, or 2) woman on top at a 45 degree angle. Both positions are also more likely to cause a vaginal-contact orgasm.

What if I (the woman) don’t feel anything? Ask for stimulation, immediately prior to orgasm. You might also try a G-spot stimulator sex toy to see if you can find it on your own in a no-pressure environment.

You can find Laurie Watson at

Laurie J. Watson, LMFT, is a certified sex therapist and author of Wanting Sex Again – How to Rekindle Desire and Heal a Sexless Marriage. Laurie helps couples “keep it hot” with her weekly podcast FOREPLAY – Radio Sex Therapy, weekend intensives, and telehealth consultations. A compelling and enthusiastic presenter, Laurie is regularly invited to speak at medical schools, conferences and retreats.

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Who Are “We”? Part One

Every progressive movement of resistance (to oppression) or progressive—if not revolutionary—movement for social transformation must establish who, meaning what sectors, are at the core of the movement, and what social movements and social sectors are at varying distances from the core. In this sense, the “we” must be constantly clarified and, in fact, changes in different periods of struggle depending on the nature of the opponent, a point reiterated by Mao Zedong throughout the Chinese Revolution.

Tecumseh understood this and set as his mission the clarification of the “we” in the context of the first decade of the nineteenth century. The “we” were the Indigenous peoples. This was based on a recognition that despite contradictions that had historically existed between various Indigenous nations, the situation facing them represented the principal contradiction between themselves and the invading white settlers from the newly formed United States.

The issue of a principal contradiction is something that has perplexed many leftists and been a source of hostility by many of those who embrace postmodernism. It is sometimes (incorrectly) counterposed to the notion of intersectionality. Yet it is the absence of an understanding of contradictions and particularly the notion of a principal contradiction that renders impossible the construction of a working strategy.

Although the notion of contradiction was not originated by Mao, his famous essay “On Contradiction” both popularized and made more accessible an understanding of contradiction. 14 The essence of dialectics involves contradiction, struggle, and the unity of opposites. It is something found in nature and in the world of social movements.

The conception of the principal contradiction suggests that at any one moment there are multiple contradictions in operation within an object, social movement, or social relation. Those contradictions act on each other, but there is always a main contradiction or conflict, not deemed by morality to be “right,” but one whose resolution will affect all others and introduce a new period in the struggle. This is the principal contradiction and over time the principal contradiction can and does change depending on the balance or correlation of forces and the nature of the moment.

Yet history is not linear and is far from lacking in complexity. Thus, contradictions do not operate in isolation. Contradictions, to borrow from French Marxist Louis Althusser, are overdetermined. 15 They do not operate in isolation, and they do not act on one another in the absence of other contradictions. Thus, a principal contradiction does not mean the sole contradiction. It also does not mean that a principal contradiction gets resolved, after which one can turn one’s attention to other contradictions in some linear fashion. The principal contradiction is affected by secondary contradictions, not secondary in the sense of unimportant or subordinate, but not representative of the main challenge in that conjuncture.

Much of the discussion about intersectionality is about contradictions, though it is frequently blurred by references to subjective identity rather than a recognition of social movements and societal tensions (and, particularly, class struggle). The discussions can devolve into the relative “importance” of different identities and struggles or a rejection of alleged hierarchies of oppression, rather than a focus on social clashes.

A Marxist understanding of intersectionality places an emphasis on overdetermination and the intersection of different systems of oppressions and social movements (that oppose them), which, at various moments, result in multilayered social struggles. Whether an individual perceives one’s self to be principally gay or lesbian, Black or mixed, Latinx or Afro-Latinx, is secondary to the manner in which oppressions come together and affect the consciousness and social practice of different groups of people. This is also critically important in understanding that, in every social movement, the multiple contradictions are acting out and cannot be put on “hold” pending the resolution of the principal contradiction. They must be both acknowledged and addressed in the way the principal contradiction is tackled. The failure to do so, as has been seen in myriad social movements, such as anticolonial struggles, ultimately results in major setbacks, indeed retrogression.

For Tecumseh, addressing the principal contradiction—between the Indigenous nations and the United States—necessitated operations on four distinct and interrelated levels: identity, Prophetstown, the grand alliance, and external alliances beyond the First Nations.

Identity involved the specific reconstruction of the understanding as to who “the people” were, in this case, winning myriad Indigenous peoples to see themselves as Indians or Indigenous, and to shift away from their principal identity being that of individual tribes. This was not a moralistic plea but a recognition that they would be crushed in the absence of a collective identity that reflected their challenge vis-à-vis the invaders. It is important to remember that in key moments from 1607 on (the English landing in Jamestown, Virginia), many individual tribal groups believed that they had established a lasting peace with the white settlers even when they could see wars of annihilation being waged against other tribal groups. The consequences were generally catastrophic.

Tippecanoe/Prophetstown was the principal base area for Tecumseh’s project. In the first stories that I heard and read about Prophetstown, it sounded like nothing more than a village. In practical terms, it was a base area and a prototype for the sort of society that Tecumseh and his brother—the Prophet—wished to bring into existence among Indigenous nations. It was a location, geographically and politically, where tribal origin was irrelevant. And it was from Prophetstown that Tecumseh set out on his myriad journeys to secure the allegiance of numerous Indigenous nations to the concept of a grand alliance or confederacy that could possibly have evolved into a nation-state.

The grand alliance or confederacy represented the united front or bloc that Tecumseh saw serving as the foundation for the new Indigenous social formation. In the first decade of the nineteenth century, Tecumseh arranged numerous diplomatic visits to various tribes with the intent of securing their agreement to join the confederacy. Tecumseh achieved major note as a supreme diplomat and was able to convince large numbers of tribes that the new confederacy had a chance of succeeding. The key to this, however, was to avoid premature military engagements with the United States.

External alliances beyond the Indigenous nations represented a final piece of the puzzle and one that proved immensely difficult and unstable. After the U.S. War of Independence, the British were bitter regarding the loss and were itching for a fight. Had the Napoleonic Wars not unfolded, the British would have been well-positioned to have not only been more provocative but might have also chosen to come after the United States sooner than what turned into the War of 1812—and they might have won. In either case, Tecumseh, exceedingly aware of the contradictions between the British and the United States, played on them through an alliance with the British from whom he sought military materiel and coordination. The front against the U.S. settlers had at its core those grouped around Prophetstown, the larger Indigenous nations confederacy, and what turned out to be an inconsistent, though important, alliance with the British.

A series of unpredictable factors undermined Tecumseh’s efforts in 1811 and, ultimately, led to his death in the Battle of the Thames (in Canada) in 1813. But the framework he offered directly corresponded to the conjuncture or circumstances faced by the Indigenous nations in the early nineteenth century. The defeat of Tecumseh’s effort signaled a greater defeat for the Indigenous nations, who were never again—as a unified people—in a position to reverse or significantly blunt the offensive of the white settlers from the United States. 16

28 facts that you might not know about Stephen Curry

USA TODAY Sports' Sam Amick discusses that while the Warriors are on an unbelievable run, it has not come easy.

Jun 14, 2015 Oakland, CA, USA Golden State Warriors guard Stephen Curry (30) reacts to a play during the second quarter against the Cleveland Cavaliers in game five of the NBA Finals at Oracle Arena. Mandatory Credit: Bob Donnan-USA TODAY Sports (Photo: Bob Donnan, Bob Donnan-USA TODAY Sports)

The reigning NBA MVP and current MVP frontrunner Stephen Curry turned 28 on Monday, and to celebrate, we have 28 facts about him.

1. His real name is Wardell Stephen Curry II.

In a Warriors World Q & A, he says that he was named after his father, and even though he is widely known as "Stephen" or "Steph," his close friends still refer to him by his birth name.

2. He was born in Akron, Ohio.

Stephen Curry defends LeBron James. (Photo: Ken Blaze, USA TODAY Sports)

Not only were Curry and LeBron James born in the same city, but they were born in the same hospital, according to NBC Bay Area.

3. His parents are both former athletes.

His dad, Dell, played in 16 NBA seasons for five different teams. His mom, Sonya, was a college volleyball standout. Guess it runs in the family.

4. His sister, Sydel, plays volleyball at Elon University.

Yeah, it runs in the family.

5. He is a gifted golfer.

In addition to his heroics on the basketball court, Curry is an avid golfer and that he shot two-under par at Pebble Beach last summer, according to the Golf Digest. He also recently hit the links with President Obama at Martha's Vineyard.

6. He holds the record for three-pointers in a season in both the NBA and NCAA.

That's right . The NBA's deadliest shooter was re-writing the record books long ago, with 162 makes during his sophomore season at Davidson, according to

7. He is extremely active in charity work.

In addition to winning the 2013-14 Kia Community Assist Award, he has worked extensively in the fight against malaria, including his help to distribute 38,000 bed nets to families at the Nyarugusu refugee camp in Tanzania, according to

8. He once starred in a Burger King commercial as a kid.

9. His mother fines him each time he commits a certain amount of turnovers. (via San Fransisco Chronicle)

Yes, he's 28-years-old and the reigning NBA MVP, but Curry has a verbal contract with his mom. She fines him $100 for each turnover he commits after his third each game. Meaning, if he commits four turnovers, he owes her $100. Five turnovers= $200, six turnovers=$300, etc.

10. He started playing basketball when he was about five years old. (via Warriors' Facebook Q & A)

Twenty-three years later, who would have thought he would be leading the dawn of a new era.

11. If he were to choose an actor to play him in a movie, it would be Denzel Washington. (via Warriors' Facebook Q & A)

It's tough to picture the 61-year-old Denzel portraying Curry, but anything's possible, right?

​12. Snakes are his biggest fear. (via Warriors' Facebook Q & A)

Don't worry Steph, they're more afraid of you than you are of them.

13. He has two daughters.

His older daughter, Riley, became an instant celebrity when she hijacked his press conferences last season. His second daughter, Ryan, was born in 2015, and she has some big shoes to fill.

Stephen Curry and daughter Riley. (Photo: Kyle Terada, USA TODAY Sports)

14. His biggest pet-peeve is when people sneeze without covering their nose. (via Warriors' Facebook Q & A)

15. Muggsy Bogues was his favorite NBA player growing up.

He told the Big Lead that he admired Bogues — the NBA's shortest player of all-time and his father's former teammate — as a kid.

16. He once found a wallet with $160 and returned it.

He described the incident to the Big Lead:

"It was at the beginning of my sophomore year and I found a wallet in the dining hall. We have this campus-wide email that goes out every morning – Davidson is a small community, people look out for each other, you know? – and I put it in there. But my email had my first name, ‘Wardell,’ on it, so I don’t think the kid knew it was me until he showed up at my door. He was like, ‘you lit up Maryland in the NCAA tournament’ and then asked for my autograph. Pretty funny."

17. He first dunked a basketball during his freshman year at Davidson.

18. His first date with his wife, Ayesha, was on Hollywood Boulevard.

“We went to Hollywood Boulevard in LA. She was living there at the time and I was visiting. She picked me up in her Astro Van. We drove around Hollywood Blvd and took a picture with the Marilyn Monroe statue that was on the Walk of Fame, had some chai tea lattes and did some sight seeing and it went from there.”

19. Two of his favorite movies are "The Princess Diaries" and "A Walk to Remember."

According to his sister's interview with ESPNW, Steph has a soft spot for chick flicks.

20. He is the longest tenured player on the Golden State Warriors roster.

Drafted in 2009, no player on the roster has been with the Warriors for longer.

21. His favorite childhood memory was when he got on stage with the hip-hop group, Kris Kross.

Got On stage with Kriss Kross hahaha “@danieelaa__: @StephenCurry30 favorite childhood memory? #AskSc30”

&mdash Stephen Curry (@StephenCurry30) February 21, 2015

22. He didn't receive a college scholarship from any major Division I program.

According to, he only received three scholarships to play college basketball: Davidson, VCU, and Winthrop.

23. He wears the No. 30 to honor his dad.

Thanks for passing the torch Pops! Cool moment with him in the Hornet Uni

&mdash Stephen Curry (@StephenCurry30) February 15, 2015

24. He met Kevin Durant at an AAU event when he was 10 years old.

Durant told NBA 2K Uncensored:

“I walk in the gym and this guy’s stepping across half court just pulling jump shots. Splash. Splash. And when we played him, he had like 35 and he was like 10 years old. I was like, who is this? And 10 years later … that was Steph Curry.”

25. His favorite TV show is How to Get Away With Murder. (via Warriors' Facebook Q & A)

Nicknamed the "Babyfaced Assassin," it's only fitting that this would be his favorite show.

26. His worst habit is eating candy. (via

His favorite sugary snack? Maynards, a fuzzy peach candy made in Canada.

27. If he could trade places with any athlete, it would be Rory McIlroy. (via Sports Illustrated)

There's that love for golf again. Rory, the ball is in your court.

28. He is a frequent visitor to, Twitter,, and Sports Illustrated.

He told SI's "hot clicks" his favorite websites to visit when first logging online.

Tecumseh: A Life

I don&apost know if any newer biographies of any depth exist and if they&aposre better or not. This is very good.

First, the fact that Sugden is not American probably gives him a different, and generally good angle. (I&aposve read a British history of what we Yanks call The American Revolution.)

Sugden notes that Tecumseh&aposs younger brother, The Prophet, took the lead on leadership among the two when both were in younger years. Only later did Tecumseh stand out, and he did so for many reasons.

First, attempts a I don't know if any newer biographies of any depth exist and if they're better or not. This is very good.

First, the fact that Sugden is not American probably gives him a different, and generally good angle. (I've read a British history of what we Yanks call The American Revolution.)

Sugden notes that Tecumseh's younger brother, The Prophet, took the lead on leadership among the two when both were in younger years. Only later did Tecumseh stand out, and he did so for many reasons.

First, attempts at intertribal unity had been done before. Tecumseh didn't re-invent the wheel, but he did do a very good job at building on the past, including widening the geographic spread of his appeal. The difficulties with language and with culture were tough.

Also tough? Within his own Shawnees, some wanted to take over more of the white culture. One chief said Shawnees should let go of their ideas that farming was "women's work" rather than the white yeoman's "honest toil." Beyond that, as shown later on across the west, some chiefs were bought off by liquor or other things, and yet others wanted peace at almost any cost.

Second, Tecumseh was a great civil and war leader both.

Sugden also shows the "dance" that anti-American Indians did with the British from 1783 and the independence of the United States on.

He also rejects mythical material. . more

An excellent well-researched biography of one of the most interesting characters in American history. More than a biography, Sugden’s book is also a tale of how the British, the Indians, and the Americans struggled for power in the Old Northwest.

Sugden does a great job documenting Tecumseh’s life and putting it in the context of the Indian-white struggle for power in the Old Northwest. The meat of the book is Tecumseh’s dream of an Indian confederacy to resist white expansion into that territory An excellent well-researched biography of one of the most interesting characters in American history. More than a biography, Sugden’s book is also a tale of how the British, the Indians, and the Americans struggled for power in the Old Northwest.

Sugden does a great job documenting Tecumseh’s life and putting it in the context of the Indian-white struggle for power in the Old Northwest. The meat of the book is Tecumseh’s dream of an Indian confederacy to resist white expansion into that territory.

Sugden’s biography features many remarkable characters such as Tecumseh’s brother Tenskhatawa (“The Prophet”). It also shows the various different approaches the tribes took in dealing with the white man.

Tecumseh slowly built a following to resist white expansion. He was leery of the British, but concluded that he needed their weaponry in order for his vision to work. Tecumseh proved to be skilled fighter and a brilliant tactician. But in the end, Tecumseh was flustered by supply lines that were too long and by his partnership with the indecisive General Proctor, who lacked resolution and vision and made decisions that made little sense to the British high command or to Tecumseh, who had proved himself to be the best asset the British had. . more

Really, the decline and fall of the Native American lands.
As Manifest Destiny became more imminent, Tecumseh attempted to fend off the advancing settlers and form a Federalist type governance amongst the varied tribes across the current Midwest (central Indiana to Detroit to Cincinnati).
Ultimately, his alliance with the British during the war of 1812 failed and led to his demise.

Good read, packed with information

This book is based on a thorough review of primary and secondary sources with 45 pages of notes and a 15 page bibliography. Sugden developed a highly descriptive portrayal of Tecumseh’s life from the time of his birth in the late 1760’s through his young adulthood in the early 1790’s when as a member of the Shawnee nation he was witness to and a member a confederacy of Native American nations trying mightily to stave off the invasion of American settlers into the Ohio Valley and what was known i This book is based on a thorough review of primary and secondary sources with 45 pages of notes and a 15 page bibliography. Sugden developed a highly descriptive portrayal of Tecumseh’s life from the time of his birth in the late 1760’s through his young adulthood in the early 1790’s when as a member of the Shawnee nation he was witness to and a member a confederacy of Native American nations trying mightily to stave off the invasion of American settlers into the Ohio Valley and what was known in those times as the Northwest Territories (Michigan, Wisconsin, etc). Finally the author depicted Tecumseh’s efforts in the years leading up to and including the War of 1812 during which he crafted and lead another confederacy in alliance with the British in that war making one last final and valiant, albeit ill fated, effort to save the world they had lived in from being overrun by American settlers.

As one might hope to see in a scholarly book like this one Sugden evaluated the sources on which he relied to write this book. For example, after noting that there were contradictory accounts of some events he tried to determine which one seemed more valid. When a source was based on an individual’s memory of an event many years after it had happened the author acknowledged that this might not have been completely accurate.

The strength of such a thorough and textured account means that one got a very realistic sense of who Tecumseh was. On the one hand, he was a masterful leader equally adept at both diplomacy and warfare. He was also seen by many as humane and honorable. On the other hand, he was sometimes inclined to impulsiveness and strategic blunders which cost the lives of his followers. And he could be mercenary and cruel at times.

The weakness of Sugden’s attention to detail is that it sometimes got tedious. Not being a fan of military history, for example, the last few chapters on the War of 1812 got to be TMI for me. I was not really interested in how many men and /or much weaponry each side had in their battles. Nor did I want to know exactly how they fought these engagements. Thus, I found myself skimming much of the last 75 pages or so of the book.

To the author’s credit he included a few chapters on the important role which Tecumseh’s younger brother, known as the Prophet, played as a spiritual leader in attracting followers to the confederacy leading up to the War of 1812. Also informative were a number of maps and reproductions of paintings of Tecumseh, other important American and British figures in his life, and places where events took place. Finally, there was an interesting epilogue in which Sugden articulated the ways in which Tecumseh has been portrayed in both American and Canadian history and literature as well as in Nazi Germany in the 1930’s where his life was used as a way for Hitler, et al to motivate their nation to unify with Germans throughout Europe.

I would recommend the book for readers who have a great interest in Native American history. Those with patience will come away richly informed. . more

Just as too many cooks spoil a broth — too many names, places and banal gatherings ruin a good story about a significant historical figure.

Tecumseh: A Life as written by John Sugden starts off with a well-woven introduction that seductively foreshadows much to learn about the American Indian leader. Instead, we get an overly scholarly narrative that details a dizzying number of tribes and leaders and entreaties with rapidly encroaching Europeans.

Yes, I get it. The tribes were many. And mindset Just as too many cooks spoil a broth — too many names, places and banal gatherings ruin a good story about a significant historical figure.

Tecumseh: A Life as written by John Sugden starts off with a well-woven introduction that seductively foreshadows much to learn about the American Indian leader. Instead, we get an overly scholarly narrative that details a dizzying number of tribes and leaders and entreaties with rapidly encroaching Europeans.

Yes, I get it. The tribes were many. And mindsets were as varied as their numbers.

As a result, the actual story arch of Tecumseh gets lost — almost like an afterthought. Well, not almost, but it reads like just that. Sure I understand the importance of creating context for Tecumseh — how and what it was that led to his path in life.

Read and learn if you wish. I did. But much like Tecumseh’s many struggles, this book’s 400 pages can be a battle at times.
. more

What your browser saves

Like most browsers, Google Chrome lets you choose which types of data to erase. David Nield/Popular Science

Before you roll up your sleeves and start blitzing all the data stored in your browser, you should know what that information is and what it does. After all, on some occasions, you might want to clear specific types of files and not others. When you dive into a browser’s settings, you’ll see references to these different data types, though the terms might vary slightly from browser to browser.

First of all, our primary concern: your browser history, which is the list of sites and pages you’ve visited in the past. This history helps you retrace your steps, bring back pages you want to refer to again, and reach your favorite sites more quickly. Many browsers draw from your history to suggest specific URLs as soon as you start typing addresses in the search bar.

Browsers also track your download history, which is just a list of files you’ve downloaded. Don’t confuse this history with the actual files themselves, which live somewhere on your computer. It’s simply a list of references to them, which can help when you’ve previously downloaded a file and can’t find it, or you want to download the same file again.

Next up are cookies: little bits of code that sites will want to store on your system. Cookies help websites recognize who you are, but they come in a variety of forms. For example, if you go to a weather website and it instantly shows you the cities which you previously searched for forecasts of, that’s a cookie in action. If you return to a shopping site and it still has the same items in your basket, that’s cookies at work again. These files won’t harm to your computer, but some users don’t like being tracked in this way, and prefer to delete them on a regular basis.

While you’re looking at cookies, you might see that your browser distinguishes standard cookies from those from third-parties. Third-party cookies track behavior across multiple sites they’re usually injected into ads rather than being part of the actual page code. You can blame this type of cookie for personalized ads: If you’ve spent some time searching multiple sites for tents and you start seeing tent ads everywhere, third-party cookies are responsible.

Finally, browsers keep a “cache,” which contains local copies of graphics and other elements that your browser uses to load pages more quickly. If you head back to a site you’ve just visited, for example, the browser can draw site images from the cache rather than pulling them from the web again. The cache thus reduces the amount of data downloaded and speeds up the whole page-loading process. While it can provide snoops with a few hints about your browsing history, you need a certain amount of technical know-how to understand it properly.

When you decide to clear browsing data, most browsers will list all these types of data separately. You can decide to clear everything out, which lets you start all over again—as if you had a new browser on a new computer—or you might decide to keep certain types of files, like the cookies and cache, to make your browsing life more convenient.

Biological Evolution Versus Creation

The theory of evolution has caused controversy from the time of its introduction until today. The controversy stems from the perception that biological evolution is at odds with religion concerning the need for a divine creator.

Evolutionists contend that evolution does not address the issue of whether God exists, but attempts to explain how natural processes work.

In doing so, however, there is no escaping the fact that evolution contradicts certain aspects of some religious beliefs. For example, the evolutionary account for the existence of life and the biblical account of creation are quite different.

Evolution suggests that all life is connected and can be traced back to one common ancestor. A literal interpretation of biblical creation suggests that life was created by an all-powerful, supernatural being (God).

Still, others have tried to merge these two concepts by contending that evolution does not exclude the possibility of the existence of God, but merely explains the process by which God created life. This view, however, still contradicts a literal interpretation of creation as presented in the Bible.

A major bone of contention between the two views is the concept of macroevolution. For the most part, evolutionists and creationists agree that microevolution does occur and is visible in nature.

Macroevolution, however, refers to the process of evolution that takes place on the level of species, in which one species evolves from another species. This is in stark contrast to the biblical view that God was personally involved in the formation and creation of living organisms.

For now, the evolution/creation debate continues and it appears that the differences between these two views are not likely to be settled soon.

Watch the video: 25 WEIRD Science Facts You May Not Know (November 2022).

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