The Chavin - History

The Chavin - History

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By 3,000 BC permanent settlements existed along the coast of Peru. By 1800 BC the Amerindians had established religious centers. Between 900 and 200 the Amerindians had become a thriving civilization called Chavin. Their civilization is centered on their religion. Not that much is known about their religion other than it had two deities the "The Smiling God" and the "Staff God". As population grew however, individual cities developed there own powers and the civilization faded away.

Chavín culture

The Chavín culture is an extinct, pre-Columbian civilization, named for Chavín de Huantar, the principal archaeological site at which its artifacts have been found. The culture developed in the northern Andean highlands of Peru from 900 BCE to 200 BCE. It extended its influence to other civilizations along the coast. [1] [2] The Chavín people (whose name for themselves is unknown) were located in the Mosna Valley where the Mosna and Huachecsa rivers merge. This area is 3,150 metres (10,330 ft) above sea level and encompasses the quechua, suni, and puna life zones. [3] In the periodization of pre-Columbian Peru, the Chavín is the main culture of the Early Horizon period in highland Peru, characterized by the intensification of the religious cult, the appearance of ceramics closely related to the ceremonial centers, the improvement of agricultural techniques and the development of metallurgy and textiles.

The best-known archaeological site for the Chavín culture is Chavín de Huantar, located in the Andean highlands of the present-day Ancash Region. It is believed to have been built around 900 BCE and was the religious and political center of the Chavín people. [3] It has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

World History Module 7

They trained young men to be weavers, teachers, and spinners.

Oldest known Olmec site dating back to 1150 BC

100-foot-high mound of earth and clay

The Teotihuacan people were at one point ruled by a man named Topiltzin.

The Teotihuacan people completely abandoned their city by AD 750.

When agriculture was developed, more people began hunting and gathering than ever before.

Scholars believe that the Peruvians may have developed their agriculture independently from other areas in the Americas.

The Maya needed a reliable calendar so they could properly worship their gods.

The Maya were known to make sacrifices to their gods.

Was the first real urban center in the Americas

Had a peak population of 25,000

Developed an early form of writing in 500 BC

Constructed stone platforms and monumental sculptures

Built a giant plaza in the center of the city surrounded by pyramids, temples, and palaces

Was the first real urban center in the Americas

Had a peak population of 25,000

Developed an early form of writing in 500 BC

Constructed stone platforms and monumental sculptures

Built a giant plaza in the center of the city surrounded by pyramids, temples, and palaces

A big tsunami hits Peru

After a terrible tsunami struck the Pacific coast of Peru about 500 BC, the Chavin took control of the towns that the tidal wave had destroyed. Probably the Chavin were united into a state, because there were lots of different towns that shared the Chavin culture, and they didn’t build city walls to protect themselves the way city-states would.

What’s a tsunami?

Around the same time, the Chavin began to keep llamas as farm animals, for their meat and for their hair (to spin into cloth), and as pack animals. Maybe thanks to the llamas, they began to trade more with their neighbors across the Andes, the Tupi. Around 250 BC, the Chavin people developed into the Moche culture (in northern Peru) and the Nazca culture (in southern Peru).

Nazca Lines and Aliens?

Toribio Mejia Xesspe, a Peruvian archaeologist, began a systematic study of the lines in 1926, but the geoglyphs only gained widespread attention when pilots flew over them in the 1930s. Experts have debated the purpose of the Nazca Lines since then.

In the late 1930s and early 1940s, American historian Paul Kosok studied the geoglyphs from the ground and air. Based on the relative position of one of the lines he studied to the sun around the winter solstice, he concluded that the geoglyphs had an astronomy-related purpose.

Soon after, Mar໚ Reiche, a German archaeologist and translator, also concluded that the designs had an astronomical and calendrical purpose. She further believed that some of the animal geoglyphs were representative of groups of stars in the sky.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, however, other researchers, including American astronomer Gerald Hawkins, examined the Nazca Lines and disagreed with the astronomical explanation for the geoglyphs. They also poked holes in other far-out explanations, such as those relating to aliens or ancient astronauts.

Chavin Culture Unites Peru

Chavin refers to an extinct culture that flourished in pre-Inca Peru circa 900 BC where it is listed on the Bible Timeline Chart with World History. It got its name from chavi, the Caribbean term for feline or tiger or the Quechua chawpin which means “in the center.” It may have also been a religious cult or political empire of which the center is Chavin de Huantar in what is today the Ancash region in Peru. At its height, the Chavin culture’s influence radiated from its center in the Cordillera Blanca mountain range to the northern and southern tips of modern day Peru facing the Pacific Ocean.

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Shared Common Art Styles

One of the most distinct aspects of Chavin culture is the shared common art style throughout the region, and its influence can be found in sites far from the Chavin De Huantar religious center. These include the Kuntur Wasi in the northern mountain range of Peru, as well as the Kotosh and Huaricoto sites in the southeast.

The Kotosh Period culture rose before the Chavin culture, but ceramics and gold artifacts belonging to the Chavin culture have been found in Kotosh elite burials. Chavinoid artifacts found in the Kotosh sites include stirrup spouts, cloud-shaped designs, rocker stampings, and black-polished incised pottery. Similar designs on reliefs and monoliths were also found in Kuntur Wasi site.

The Huaca de los Reyes building of the Caballo Muerto archeological complex features feline heads mounted on walls that are similar to Chavin art style. The Chavin culture influence is also evident in the Pacopampa culture pottery.

Inter-regional Trade

Its location between the Pacific Coast and the eastern jungle made Chavin de Huantar a center for trade. This is evident in the iconography of jungle plants and animals that can be found in Chavin stone sculptures and ceramics. In addition, the U-shaped layout of the temple and the sunken plazas in circular or rectangular shapes can be found in both Chavin and coastal cultures.

Profile feline heads, which were prominent features of coastal cultures, were integrated into Chavin stoneworks. Spondylus shells from Ecuador, as well as cinnabar and obsidian from south-central highlands of Peru that were recovered at Chavin de Huantar are strong indicators that far-reaching trade occurred at the site.

Warfare and Conquest

The Casma/Sechin culture that came before the Chavin was a particularly violent one and they carved depictions of ax-wielding warriors with mutilated human remains on their city walls. In contrast, depictions of conquest and warfare are absent in Chavin de Huantar. This may be an indication that the Chavins did not spread their influence through invasion, but through trade and religion.

Kellie Chauvin and a history of Asian women being judged for whom they marry

As more details around the death of George Floyd are revealed, other developments, including that the ex-officer charged with murder in the case was married to a Hmong American woman, have prompted discussion. It's also led to a spate of hateful online remarks in the Asian American community around interracial relationships.

The ex-officer, Derek Chauvin, was fired the day after Floyd's death and now faces murder and manslaughter charges. The day after his arrest last month, his wife, Kellie, filed for divorce, citing "an irretrievable breakdown" in the marriage. She also indicated her intention to change her name.

The Chauvins’ interracial marriage has stirred up strong feelings toward Kellie Chauvin among many, including Asian American men, over her relationship with a white man, including accusations of self-loathing and complicity with white supremacy.

Some on the internet have labeled her a “self-hating Asian.” Others have concluded her marriage was a tool to gain social standing in the U.S., and several social media users on Asian American message boards dominated by men have dubbed her a “Lu,” a slang term often used to describe Asian women who are in relationships with white men as a form of white worship.

Many experts feel the reaction is symptomatic of attitudes that many in the community, especially certain men, have held toward women in interracial relationships, particularly with white men. It’s the unfortunate result of a complicated, layered web spun from the historical emasculation of Asian men, fetishization of Asian women and the collision of sexism and racism in the U.S.

Sung Yeon Choimorrow, executive director of the nonprofit National Asian Pacific American Women's Forum, told NBC Asian America that by passing judgment on Asian women's interracial relationships without context or details essentially removes their independence.

“The assumption is that an Asian woman who is married to a white man, she's living some sort of stereotype of a submissive Asian woman, who’s internalizing racism and wanting to be white or being closer to white or whatever,” she said.

That belief, Choimorrow added, “just goes with the whole idea that somehow we don't have a right to live our lives the way we want to.”

Little about the Chauvins’ marriage has been revealed to the public. Kellie, who came to the U.S. as a refugee, mentioned a few details in a 2018 interview with The Twin Cities Pioneer Press before becoming United States Of America's Mrs. Minnesota. She explained she had previously been in an arranged marriage in which she endured domestic abuse. She met Chauvin while she was working in the emergency room of Hennepin County Medical Center in Minneapolis.

Kellie Chauvin is hardly the only Asian woman who has been the target of these comments. In 2018, “Fresh Off the Boat” actress Constance Wu opened up about the anger she received from Asian men — specifically “MRAsians,” an Asian American play on the term “men’s rights activists" — for having dated a white man. Wu, who also starred in the culturally influential Asian American rom-com “Crazy Rich Asians,” was included in a widely circulated meme that, in part, attacked the female cast members for relationships with white men.

Experts pointed out that the underlying rhetoric isn’t confined to message boards or solely the darker corners of the internet. It’s rife throughout Asian American communities, and Asian women have long endured judgment and harassment for their relationship choices. Choimorrow notes it’s become a sort of "locker room talk" among many men in the racial group.

"It's not [just] incel, Reddit conversations,” Choimorrow said. “I'm hearing this amongst people daily.”

But sociologist Nancy Wang Yuen, a scholar focused on Asian American media representation, pointed out that the origins of such anger have some validity. The roots lie in the emasculation of Asian American men, a practice whose history dates back to the 1800s and early 1900s in what is referred to today as the “bachelor society,” Yuen said. That time period marked some of the first waves of immigration from Asia to the U.S. as Chinese workers were recruited to build the transcontinental railroad. One of the preliminary immigrant groups of Filipinos, dubbed the “manong generation,” also arrived in the country a few decades later.

While Asian men made their way stateside, women largely remained in Asia. Yuen noted that simultaneously, limits on Asian female immigration were instituted via the Page Act of 1875, which banned the importation of women “for the purpose of prostitution.” According to research published in The Modern American, the legislation may have been meant to cut off prostitution, but it was often weaponized to keep any Asian woman from entering the country, as it granted immigration officers the authority to determine whether a woman was of “high moral character.”

Moreover, antimiscegenation laws, or bans on interracial unions, kept Asian men from marrying other races, Yuen noted. It wasn’t until the 1967 case, Loving v. Virginia, that such legislation was declared unconstitutional.

“Americans thought of [Asian men] as emasculated,” she said. “They’re not perceived as virile because there’s no women. Because of immigration laws, there was a whole bachelor society … and so you have all these different kinds of Asian men in the United States who did not have partners.”

As the image of Asian men was once, in part, the architecture of racist legislation, the sexless, undesirable trope was further confirmed by Hollywood depictions of the race. Even heartthrob Japanese actor Sessue Hayakawa, who did experience appeal from white women, was used to show Asian men as sexual threats during a period of rising anti-Japanese sentiment.

Often, these portrayals of both men and women evolved with war, Yuen added. For example, the sexualization of Asian women on screen was heightened after the Vietnam War due to prostitution and sex trafficking that American military men often took part in. Stanley Kubrick’s 1987 film “Full Metal Jacket” infamously perpetuates the stereotype of women as sexual deviants with a scene featuring a Vietnamese sex worker exclaiming, “Me so horny.”

Asian women were seen as "the spoils of war and Asian men were seen as threats,” she said. “So always seeing them as either an enemy to be conquered or an enemy to be feared, all that has to do with the stereotypes of Asian men and women.”

Yuen is quick to point out that Asian women, who possessed very little decision-making power throughout U.S. history, were neither behind the legislation nor the narratives in the American entertainment industry.

The historical emasculation of Asian men stings to this day. A study from OkCupid found that Asian men were ranked least desirable among all demographics. Another study found that the majority of its Asian American female respondents reported their attraction, from a young age, was overwhelmingly to European American boys.

Pawan Dhingra, a sociologist and a professor of American studies at Amherst College, said this is in part due to the fact that Asian American women were not only consumers of Western media that perpetuated such stereotypes about Asian men while romanticizing the sensitive, “masculine” white man, they also internalized some cultural baggage from the often-patriarchal societies of their heritages.

“It comes from a set of assumptions we internalize ourselves. We see immigrant parents, or relationships between men and women in the homeland, that might be more traditional gender roles,” Dhingra said. “We assume that it applies to all people of our background, even no matter where they grew up.”

However, directing anger toward Asian women for their interracial relationships uncovers a host of problematic underlying beliefs, experts said. Some of the vitriol stems from erroneous assumptions that because women are seen as more sexually desirable, they are therefore more privileged. Anthony Ocampo — a sociologist who focuses on race, immigration and LGBTQ issues — bluntly referred to that particular argument as “unbelievably stupid.”

“Privilege is the ability to navigate the social world and experience social mobility without your identity hampering your journey. In what world do you see Asian women getting frontrunners for public office, being tapped to be CEOs of companies, to be considered for leads in Hollywood movies?” the scholar said. “Sure, Asian men aren't being tapped for these opportunities either, but Asian women aren't the problem — white gatekeepers are.”

Moreover, Choimorrow said the idea that Asian women are more privileged ignores the dangerous byproducts of their fetishization. This includes not only the dehumanization of these women, but also the susceptibility to harassment and violence due to the submissive stereotype.

From "21 to 55 percent of Asian women in the U.S. report experiencing intimate physical and/or sexual violence during their lifetime," the Asian Pacific Institute on Gender-Based Violence reported. The range is based on a compilation of studies of disaggregated samples of Asian ethnicities in local communities. The National Sexual Violence Resource Center reported that about 1 in 5 women in the U.S. overall have experienced completed or attempted rape during her lifetime.

“I just hate this whole Olympics of the oppressed,” Choimorrow said. “I just think it’s such a short-sighted approach. Dude, you don't walk out every day worrying about your physical safety. For women, that’s exactly what we worry about when we walk out our door.”

Yuen echoed her thoughts, adding, “Just because Asian women don't share the same kinds of challenges as Asian men doesn't mean that they should be held to a different standard or at their struggle within the racial sexual politics of the United States. It isn’t any less valid.”

Dhingra also acknowledged that there lies a double standard when it comes to Asian women, leading the group to be judged more harshly than their male peers. He explained that it comes down to a uniquely racialized brand of sexism. Being in relationships with other Asian Americans has been seen as a sort of litmus test for how “committed” one is to the race. Additionally, because of the existing stereotype of Asian women as submissive, particularly to white men, the sight of an Asian woman in an interracial relationship can trigger the idea that she is perpetuating existing stereotypes. He explained that there’s a perception that Asian women are reproducing racism toward Asian men and affirming the idea that they’re not worth dating.

He said the collision of sexism and racism has made it so that there’s a stricter, more unfair dynamic placed on Asian American women.

The burden placed on Asian American women to date within their own race also presents another problematic idea: that women are still thought of as property, Choimorrow noted. It’s just another form of toxic masculinity, she said, as the expectation that Asian women date Asian men means there is no agency in their dating choices. It’s a mentality that has been inherited through our heritages, she said.

“Even in Korea, as a woman, your value isn't so much as you are marriageable,” she said. “So many of our cultures have these things very deeply ingrained in the way we value and think about women.”

Little has changed, Choimorrow believes. Even as many Asian Americans continue to fight for racial justice, some ideas have been slow to evolve.

“Especially in the progressive circles, they're focused on their oppression as a racial minority, that they often don't think about what they're perpetuating as men,” she said.

The undue pressure toward Asian American women to “fix” the existing structures is not productive in helping mend the reductive perceptions of Asian men, Ocampo said.

Simply put, “You don't need to subjugate women, including Asian women, to feel sexy. That's just f------ lame.”

Dhingra is adamant that no assumptions should be made about any couple’s racial dynamic, particularly if there’s no personal connection to the couple. But he also emphasized that people need to push back on the perpetuation of the problematic ideas in society that devalue Asian Americans while upholding whiteness.

Ocampo had similar thoughts, explaining that more people should be demanding more complicated Asian male characters on screen, rather than those who fit “some perfectly chiseled IG model aesthetic,” he said, referencing carefully curated photos from models on Instagram.

While there are many social reasons for why we value whiteness that Dhingra said are “pretty messed up,” Asian Americans should seek to dismantle them and thus “get to the point where we have more confidence when people do form interracial relationships, because we actually care about that particular individual as a person.”

Follow NBC Asian America on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.

What is San Pedro?

Native to the Andean mountain range of South America, San Pedro (Saint Peter) cactus is so called because it is said to be the key that opens the gates of heaven. The plant has the potential to catalyze deep healing at many levels, both for individuals and societies. The San Pedro cactus is a “teacher plant” that has much to offer those looking for a profound psychedelic experience.

“It is the real Temple of Doom the one in Indiana Jones is based off of Chavín itself,” explains Scott Lite, a U.S.-born Ethnobotonist and Huachumero (San Pedro shaman), who lives in Peru. He says the priests would give the people “tons of San Pedro and send them through underground labyrinths. The priests would blow pututus [shell horns] and whisper creepy or spiritual stuff while the person walked through the labyrinth in the pitch black.”

Not unlike the ancient Greek (1200 BC to 323 BC) Eleusinian Mysteries initiation rites, which some scholars say involved psychedelic substances, the ritual was designed to open up a common inhabitant to a sacred world view that served to hold society together.

Complexity and vision: the Staff God at Chavín de Huántar and beyond

The artistic style seen in stone sculpture and architectural decoration at the temple site of Chavín de Huántar, in the Andean highlands of Peru, is deliberately complex, confusing, and esoteric. It is a way of depicting not only the spiritual beliefs of the religious cult at Chavín, but of keeping outsiders “out” while letting believers “in.” Only those with a spiritual understanding would be able to decipher the artwork.

Left: the Raimondi Stele, c. 900-200 B.C.E., Chavín culture, Peru (Museo Nacional de Arqueología Antropología e Historia del Peru, photo: Taco Witte, CC BY 2.0). Right: Line drawing of the Raimondi Stele (source: Tomato356, CC BY-SA 3.0)

The Raimondi Stele from Chavín de Huántar is an important object because it is so highly detailed and shows Chavín style at its most complex. It is easiest to see in a drawing, because the original sculpture is executed by cutting shallow but steep lines into the highly-polished stone surface, making it very difficult to make out the incised image. This style is deliberately challenging to understand, thereby communicating the mystery of the Staff God, and creating a difference between those initiated in the religion who can understand the imagery, and outsiders who cannot.

Powerful animals

The stele (see video directly below) shows the god holding staffs composed of numerous curling forms. Beneath the god’s hands we see upside-down and sideways faces, and the staffs terminate at the top in two snake heads with protruding tongues. The god’s belt is a compressed, abstracted face with two snakes extending from where the ears should be, perhaps substituting the snakes for hair, and turning the face with its snake-hair into a belt. The god’s hands and feet have talons rather than human fingernails, evoking felines and birds of prey.

These are references to animals that would have been exotic rumors to the people of highland Chavín: the jaguar, the harpy eagle, and the anaconda are all animals that dwell in the lush tropical jungle over the Andes mountains to the east. They are all apex predators, possessing physical qualities like strength, flight, and stealth that become metaphors for the power of the Staff God. Other supernatural imagery from Chavín includes images of caimans, crocodile-like animals that also inhabit the eastern jungles. Most people would never have seen these creatures, rendering them mythical in their own right, and suitable for depicting the mysterious nature of the god.

Multiple faces

The god’s face is actually composed of multiple faces (see video directly below). The eyes in the center looking upward are above a downturned mouth sporting feline fangs, but beneath that we can see another upside-down pair of eyes and a nose tha­t use the same mouth. This is an artistic technique known as contour rivalry, where parts of an image can be visually interpreted in multiple ways. A similar thing is taking place on the god’s “forehead,” where we see another upside-down mouth with four large fangs protruding from it, which when associated with the eyes in the middle completes a full face. Above this multi-faced head is what appears to be an enormous headdress, which is composed of more faces that also multiply using contour rivalry, and have extensions emanating from them that terminate in curls and snake heads.

An intricate style

This intricate and confusing style was not just used for large monuments at Chavín. Smaller carved, decorative elements of the site’s architecture also display these kinds of supernatural figures. The two stone slabs seen below are examples of the kinds of sculptures found in cornices and other architectural elements at Chavín.

Stone sculpture (Museo Nacional de Chavín, photo and drawing: Dr. Sarahh Scher, CC BY-NC 4.0)

One of these depicts a standing figure with snakes for hair. It sports the same protruding fangs we see in the upside-down heads above the Staff God’s face. Large pendant earrings rest on its shoulders, and in its hands it holds two shells: a Strombus in its right hand and a Spondylus in its left. Spondylus shells are not native to Peru they thrive in the warm coastal waters of what is now Ecuador, hundreds of kilometers from Chavín. Early on in the history of the Andes, there was a brisk trade in these shells as luxury items.

Carved Strombus shell trumpet (pututu) (Museo Nacional de Chavín, photo: Dr. Sarahh Scher, CC BY-NC 4.0)

Strombus can be found in Peruvian waters, but that is the southernmost reach of their range—they are more common in the north. A great number of carved Strombus shells turned into trumpets (called pututu ) have been found at Chavín. Far from the ocean, these shells symbolized water and fertility. Furthermore, the Strombus is frequently associated with masculinity, while the Spondylus has feminine associations. The two together therefore signaled generative fertility and the power of the cult to foster agricultural prosperity.

Cornice sculpture (Museo Nacional de Chavín, photo and drawing: Dr. Sarahh Scher, CC BY-NC 4.0)

A second carved figure is more enigmatic, and is full of contour rivalry . The main figure appears to be composed of the head to the right, attached to a body with round spots, probably alluding to a jaguar. However, behind the head is another eye, nose, and fanged mouth, and the jaguar spots are joined by an eye with a profile mouth with fangs. Thus, what appears to be one creature at first glance may be as many as three. At the bottom left, we can see another fanged mouth, this one upside-down, but because the stone is broken, we’ve lost its context.

The spread of the Staff God

The image of the Staff God would spread throughout Peru. The imagery’s geographic reach gives us some insight into the contact between distant areas and the diffusion of imagery. Once thought to show the expansion of the cult of Chavín, today scholars are more hesitant to draw direct relationships between Chavín influence and these far-flung images. The Staff God may have had its roots in earlier cultural styles, including the one known as Cupisnique , making Chavín just one of many expressions of this deity. The Staff God’s imagery traveled extensively, far beyond the areas already mentioned.

Cupisnique-style crown, 800-500 B.C.E., gold, 24 × 15.5 cm (National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution, photo: Dr. Sarahh Scher, CC BY-NC 4.0)

A Cupisnique gold crown from Chongoyape, Peru, also demonstrates the Staff God’s reach. The crown depicts a version of the god that is simpler than that seen in the Raimondi Stele, but it still uses contour rivalry and the trademark fanged mouths.

Textile fragment, 4th–3rd century B.C.E., Chavín culture, Peru, cotton, refined iron earth pigments, 14.6 x 31.1 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, drawing by Dr. Sarahh Scher, CC BY-NC 4.0)

A painted textile fragment with the Staff God is thought to be from the southern Peruvian coast, hundreds of kilometers from Chavín (which is in the highlands). It is woven from cotton, which is a coastal agricultural product, and distinct from the camelid wool that came from the highlands. The Staff God here is shown with the head in profile, and with snakes emerging from the top of the head, with a feline-fanged mouth, snake belt, and taloned hands and feet. The figure is enclosed in a knot-like shape, composed of supernatural figures that blend snake and feline attributes. Other southern coastal textiles with Staff God imagery have been found, including some that render the Staff God as explicitly female, showing how this religious imagery transformed as it traveled.

Map of Peru showing the locations of objects with Staff God imagery (© 2018 Google)

Traveling in time

The image of a divine figure holding staffs or similar objects in its hands would persist in Andean art long past the time of Chavín. The so-called “Sun Gate” at the site of Tiwanaku, near lake Titicaca in modern-day Bolivia, is 748 miles (about 1200 km) from Chavín. It dates from around 800–1000 C.E., and so is separated by at least a thousand years from the Raimondi Stele. However, like the Stele, it features an abstracted and intricate style that separates believers from outsiders.

Sun Gate, Tiwanaku, Bolivia (photo: Brent Barrett, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Sun Gate, Tiwanaku, Bolivia (photo: Ian Carvell, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Tiwanaku style is more angular than Chavín, and the Sun Gate has a strong gridded organization that adds to the geometric feel. The central figure of the Sun Gate, while sharing the frontality of the Staff God and the familiar pose (arms at the sides, elbows bent, and vertical objects in its grasp), is also different from earlier iterations. The head is disproportionately large, rendered in a higher relief than the rest of the figure, and features projecting shapes that may represent the rays of the sun. Some terminate in feline heads in profile, a change from the earlier serpents seen at Chavín, Chongoyape, and in the textile fragment. In its hands it holds projectiles and a spear-thrower—weapons rather than elaborate staffs.

The Sun Gate figure stands atop a stepped pyramid shape with serpentine figures emerging from it, a representation of the Akapana pyramid, which mirrored the nearby sacred mountain Illimani not only in shape but by having a series of internal and external channels that allowed rain water to cascade down the side of the structure like the above-and below-ground rivers of the mountain. Not only does it stand in the same pose as the Staff God it, too, is associated with natural forces, like the mountain, the sun, and the waters of Illimani. The feline heads terminating the rays from the figure’s head are joined by the bird-human hybrid “attendant” figures in the rows to either side.

The meaning of the Staff God image was likely different in each of the places it has been found, an image of the sacred that came from afar and was adopted and adapted to the needs of the local people. In each case, however, we find that the intricate and often inscrutable imagery was a way of keeping believers separate from outsiders.

Richard L. Burger, Chavin and the origins of Andean civilization (London: Thames and Hudson, 1995).

Julia T. Burtenshaw-Zumstein, Cupisnique, Tembladera, Chongoyape, Chavín? A Typology of Ceramic Styles from Formative Period Northern Peru, 1800-200 BC, doctoral dissertation, University of East Anglia, 2014.

Joanne Pillsbury, Timothy Potts, and Kim N. Richter, Golden Kingdoms: Luxury arts in the ancient Americas (Los Angeles: Getty Trust Publications, 2017).

George Floyd And Derek Chauvin Had History: Worked Together For A Full Year

Derek Chauvin, the Minneapolis (now ex-)police officer who was seen in a viral video kneeling on the neck of George Floyd, as the arrested begged for his life, continuing to apply pressure long after Floyd had stopped breathing, turns out to have quite a history. Part of that history? He and Floyd were co-workers for a full year.

[Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images]

According to Insider, the former owner of El Nuevo Rodeo Club says that before she sold the business last year, both Derek Chauvin and George Floyd were employed there. Chauvin served as security for 17 years, and Floyd was a bouncer through 2019. Maya Santamaria, who owned the club at the time, says it’s possible they didn’t know each other, but for a full year, the two worked related jobs at the same club.

While Chauvin’s work would have been outside, and Floyd would have worked security inside the building, Santamaria says they would have been at work during the same hours.

Andrea Jenkins, vice president of the Minneapolis City Council, told MSNBC a slightly different story, as seen in the clip below. She seems less clear on how long Floyd worked for the establishment, but seems to see less distinction in their job titles and descriptions. She firmly asserts, “Officer Chauvin….knew George. They were co-workers for a very long time.”

Andrea Jenkins, vice president of Minneapolis City Council, says George Floyd and Officer Chauvin worked at restaurant near Third Precinct.

"They were coworkers for a very long time."

The Associated Press notes that Chauvin had been the subject of complaints 17 times in the past. Though records don’t show the details of the complaints, 16 were closed without disciplinary action, and the other with letters of reprimand. His record includes shooting two suspects. The one that survived disputes the official account of the incident, saying that the officer broke a bathroom door and began to hit him, and that he merely tried to defend himself. He maintains that, contrary to official reports, he was too disoriented to have tried to go for Chauvin’s gun.

Though Chauvin has been fired from his position, he has not been arrested and charged in Floyd’s death. Protests calling for his arrest, and for justice, hit a fever pitch Thursday night, escalating to include fires, arrests, injuries and one shooting death, which is being investigated, according to CBS Minnesota.

Watch the video: Ancient Aliens: The Impossible Stone Blocks of Puma Punku Season 9. History (October 2022).

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