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Theories of Myth: Crash Course World Mythology #12

Theories of Myth: Crash Course World Mythology #12


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This week, we're talking about theories of Myth. We'll look at the different ways mythology has been studied in the last couple of millenia, and talk about the diffeent ways people have interpreted myth, academically.

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What is culture? How do we define it and how does it change? We’ll explore different categories of culture, like low culture, high culture, and sub-cultures. We'll also revisit our founding theories to consider both a structural functionalist and a conflict theory perspective on what cultures mean for society.

Crash Course is made with Adobe Creative Cloud. Get a free trial here: https://www.adobe.com/creativecloud.html

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Mark, Les Aker, Bob Kunz, Mark Austin, William McGraw, Jeffrey Thompson, Ruth Perez, Jason A Saslow, Eric Prestemon, Malcolm Callis, Steve Marshall, Advait Shinde, Rachel Bright, Ian Dundore, Tim Curwick, Ken Penttinen, Dominic Dos Santos, Caleb Weeks, Frantic Gonzalez, Kathrin Janßen, Nathan Taylor, Yana Leonor, Andrei Krishkevich, Brian Thomas Gossett, Chris Peters, Kathy & Tim Philip, Mayumi Maeda, Eric Kitchen, SR Foxley, Tom Trval, Andrea Bareis, Moritz Schmidt, Jessica Wode, Daniel Baulig, Jirat
--

(00:00) to (02:00)

How many cultures are there in the world? We've talked a lot about the things that make a culture, a culture, things like norms and symbols and languages, but we haven't really discussed how you lump all those little things together and say, yes, these are the things that belong together, these things are culture A, and these other things are culture B. So what are the rules of culture?

Well, culture isn't just about nationality or the language you speak. You and another person can live in the same country and speak the same language and still have totally different cultural backgrounds. Within a single country, even within a single city, you see lots of different cultures and each person's cultural background will be a mish-mash of many different influences. So there really isn't and never will be a single agreed upon number of cultures that exist in the world. But that doesn't mean we can't recognize a culture and understand cultural patterns and cultural change and think about how different cultures contribute to the functioning of society.

Are you more likely to spend your free time at a football game or at a modern art gallery? Do you watch NCIS or True Detective? Do you wear JC Penney or J. Crew? These distinctions and many more like them are just one way of distinguishing between cultural patterns in terms of social class, 'cause yes, class affects culture and vice versa. So, one way of looking at culture is by examining distinctions between low culture and high culture, and okay, yeah, those are kind of gross sounding terms, but I wanna be clear. High culture does not mean "better" culture. In fact, so-called low culture is also known as popular culture, which is exactly what it sounds like.

Low or popular culture includes the cultural behaviors and ideas that are popular with most people in a society. High culture, meanwhile, refers to cultural patterns that distinguish society's elite. You can sort of think of low culture vs high culture as the Peoples' Choice Awards vs. the Oscars. The Hunger Games probably weren't gonna be winning Best Picture at the Oscars, but they were massive blockbusters, and the original movie was voted the best movie of 2012 by the Peoples' Choice Awards. By contrast, the winner of Best Picture at the Oscars that same year was The Artist, a black and white silent film produced by a French production company. Very different movies, very different types of culture.

(02:00) to (04:00)

Now, you can also look at how different types of cultural patterns work together. The Hunger Games and The Artist may appeal to different segments of society, but ultimately, they both fit into mainstream American media culture.

Mainstream culture includes the cultural patterns that are broadly in line with a society's cultural ideals and values, and within any society, there are also subcultures, cultural patterns that set apart a segment of a society's population. Take, for example, hipsters. They make up a cultural group that was formed around the idea of rejecting what was once considered 'cool' and (?

2:35) have a different type of cultural expression.

Yeah, your beard or your six gear bike or your bleach blond hair or your thick frame glasses, they're all part of the material culture that signifies membership in your own specific subculture. But who decides what's mainstream and what's a subculture? I mean, the whole hipster thing has gone pretty mainstream at this point.

Typically, cultural groups with the most power and societal influence get labeled the norm, and people with less power get relegated to subgroups. The US is a great example of this. In large part because of our history as a country of immigrants, the US is often thought of as a "melting pot", a place where many cultures come together to form a single combined culture. But how accurate is that? After all, each subculture is unique and they don't necessarily blend together into one big cohesive culture just because we share a country, and more importantly, some cultures are valued more than others in the US. For example, everyone gets Christmas off from school, because Christian culture holds a privileged role in American society. That might not seem fair if you're a member of a subculture that isn't folded into mainstream culture. So it's not really a melting pot if one flavor is overpowering all the other flavors, and this brings me to another subject: how we judge other cultures and subcultures.

Humans are judgmental. We just are, and we're extra judgmental when we see someone who acts differently than how we think people should act. Ethnocentrism is the practice of judging one culture by the standards of another. In recent decades, there's been growing recognition that Eurocentrism or the preference for European cultural patterns has influenced how history has been recorded and how we interpret the lives and ways of people from other cultures. So what if, rather than trying to melt all the cultures into one, we recognized each individual flavor?

(04:00) to (06:00)

One way to do this is by focusing research on cultures that have historically gotten less attention. For example, Afrocentrism is a school of thought that recenters historical and sociological study on the contributions of Africans and African-Americans. Another option is expanding and equalizing your focus. Instead of looking at behavior through the lens of your own culture, you can look at it through the lens of multiculturalism, a perspective that rather than seeing society as a homogenous culture, recognizes cultural diversity while advocating for the equal standing of all cultural traditions. In this view, America is less a melting pot and more like a multicultural society. Still, the ways in which cultures and subcultures fit together, if at all, can very depending on your school of thought as a sociologist.

For example, from a structural functionalist perspective, cultures form to provide order and cohesiveness in a society. So in that view, a melting pot of cultures is a good thing, but a conflict theorist might see the interactions of subcultures differently. Prioritizing one subculture over another can create social inequalities and disenfranchise those who belong to cultures that are at odds with the mainstream. It's hard to encourage individual cultural identities without promoting divisiveness. In the US, at least, it's a constant struggle. But sometimes, subgroups can be more than simply different from mainstream culture, they can be in active opposition to it.

This is what we call a counter-culture. Counter-cultures push back on mainstream culture in an attempt to change how a society functions. Let's go to the Thought Bubble to take a trip back to one of the biggest counter-cultural periods of the 20th century--the 1960s.

In the United States, the 1960s were rife with counter-cultures. It was a time of beatniks and hippies, of protests against the Vietnam War and a protest for Civil Rights and women's liberation. These movemenets were often led by young people and were seen as a rebellion against the culture and values of older generations. This was the era of free love, where people embraced relationships outside of the traditionally heterosexual and monogomous cultural norms. Drug use, especially the use of psychedelic drugs, was heavily associated with this sub-culture and was celebrated in its popular culture, think Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds or (?

But this counter-culture was also a push back politically against mainstream culture. Many cornerstones of the politics of the American left have their origins in the counter-culture of the 1960s: anti-war, pro-environmentalism, pro-civil rights, feminsim, LGBTQ equality. From the Stonewall Riots to the Vietnam War protests, '60s counter-culture was where many of these issues first reached the public consciousness.

(06:00) to (08:00)

So counter-cultures can often act as catalysts for cultural change, especially if they get big enough to gain mainstream support. But cultures change all the time, with or without the pushback from subcultures and counter-cultures, and different parts of cultures change at different speeds. Sometimes we have what's called a cultural lag, where some cultural elements change more slowly than others. Think how education works, for example. In the US, we get the summer off from school. This is a holdover from when this was a more agricultural country and children needed to take time off during the harvest. Today, there's no real reason for summer vacation, other than that's what we've always done.

So how does cultural change happen? Sometimes people invent new things that change culture. Cell phones, for example, have revolutionized not just how we make phone calls, but how we socialize and communicate, and inventions don't just have to be material. Ideas, like about money or voting systems, can also be invented and change a culture. People also discover new things. When European explorers first discovered tomatoes in Central America in the 1500s and brought them back to Europe, they completely changed the culture of food. What would pizza be without tomatoes?

A third cause of cultural change comes from cultural diffusion, which is how cultural traits spread from one culture to another. Just about everything we think of as classic American culture is actually borrowed and transformed from another culture. Burgers and fries? German and Belgian, respectively. The American cowboy? An update on the Mexican vaquero. The ideals of liberty and justice for all enshired in our founding documents? Heavily influenced by French philosophers like Rousseau and Voltaire and British philosophers like Hobbes and Locke, as well as by the Iroquois Confederacy and its ideas of representative democracy.

Whether we're talking about material culture or symbolic culture, we see more and more aspects of culture shared across nations and across oceans. As symbolic interactionists see it, all of society is about the shared reality, the shared culture, that we create. As borders get thinner, the group of people who share a culture gets larger. Whether it's the hot dogs we get from Germany or the jazz and hip-hop coming from African traditions, more and more cultures overlap as technology and globalization make our world just a little bit smaller.

(08:00) to (09:40)

As our society becomes more global, the questions raised by two of our camps of sociology, structural functionalism and conflict theory, become even more pressing. Are the structural functionalists right? Does having a shared culture provide points of similarity that encourage cooperation and help society function? Or does conflict theory have it right? Does culture divide us, and benefit some members of society more than others? In the end, they're both kind of right. There will always be different ways of thinking and doing and living within a society, but culture is the tie that binds us together.

Today, we learned about different types of culture, like low culture and high culture. We looked at different ways of categorizing cultures into subcultures. We contrasted two different ways of looking at cultural diversity: Ethnocentrism and Multi-culturalism. We discussed the role of counter cultures and explored how cultural change happens, and lastly, we looked at a structural functionalist and a conflict theory perspective of what cultures mean for society.

CrashCourse: Sociology is filmed in the Dr. Cheryl C. Kinney Studio in Missoula, Montana and it's made with the help of all of these nice people. Our animation team is Thought Cafe. CrashCourse is made with Adobe Creative Cloud. If you'd like to keep CrashCourse free for everyone forever, you can support the series at Patreon, a crowd-funding platform that allows you to support the content you love. Speaking of Patreon, we'd like to thank all of our Patrons in general, and we'd like to specifically thank our headmaster of learning, David Cichowski. Thank you for your support.

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Crash Course World Mythology #4

A man Borr, who in turn married Bestla, the daughter of the frost giant Boelthor. Bestla gave birth to three sons: Vili, Vé, and Odin.

Ea and his brothers were a wild bunch and disturbed their grandparents, Apsû and Tiamat. Before Apsû could carry out his plan to force Ea and his brothers to behave. Ea and Koh killed Apsû.

Unsurprisingly, Tiamat was. none too happy, so she created a bunch of snakes, dragons, fishmen, bullmen, and other horrors to teach those boys a lesson. Ea, Anshar, and Anu went to war against the monsters, but were unable to defeat them without the help of Ea's son, Marduk. Now, Marduk, whom Ea called the Great Sun (with a U), was no dummy, and he saw his father's weakness as a chance to take over.

So he made a deal with Ea. Marduk would help defeat Tiamat if he could be named King of the Gods and also the Universe.. Ea agreed to Marduk's deal, and he went off to fight Tiamat, who, as sometimes happens, had transformed herself into a sea monster.


Course content

Crash Course World Mythology Preview

Crash Course Mythology with Mike Rugnetta is here, and we have the preview video to prove it. We'll be uploading Friday afternoons to fulfill all your hunger for foundational cultural stories and whatnot.

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Mark, Kathrin Janßen, Ken Penttinen, Yana Leonor, Advait Shinde, Meshal Alshammari, Robert Kunz, Cody Carpenter, Annamaria Herrera, Nathan Taylor, Andrea Bareis, Eric Prestemon, Les Aker, William McGraw, Justin Zingsheim, Bader AlGhamdi, Kyle Anderson, Vaso, Melissa Briski, Joey Quek, Andrei Krishkevich, Rachel Bright, Rizwan Kassim, Alex S, Mayumi Maeda, Kathy & Tim Philip,

What Is Myth? Crash Course World Mythology #1

Welcome to Crash Course World Mythology, our latest adventure (and this series may be literally adventurous) in education. Over the next 40 episodes or so, we and Mike Rugnetta are going to learn about the world by looking at the foundational stories of a bunch of different cultural traditions. We’re going to look at the ways that people’s stories define them, and the ways they shape their culture. We’re going to learn about gods, goddesses, heroes, and tricksters, and a lot more. We’re going to walk the blurry line between myth and religion, and we’re going to like it.

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Creation from the Void: Crash Course World Mythology #2

Today on Crash Course Mythology we’re starting in on creation stories. This week, we’ll focus on the creation of the universe out of nothing, or Ex Nihlio creation. Basically, a god decides to make a universe out of nothing. We’ll look at the Genesis story (which has nothing to do with Peter Gabriel or Phil Collins), a Mayan creation tale, a Kono story of the beginning, and we’ll even look at the Big Bang.

Sources:
The Oxford Companion to World Mythology by David Leeming - https://www.amazon.com/Oxford-Companion-World-Mythology-Leeming/dp/0195387082

The Theogony of Hesiod translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White - http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/hesiod/theogony.htm

In the Beginning: Creation Stories from Around the World by Virginia Hamilton and Barry Moser - https://www.amazon.com/Beginning-Creation-Stories-Around-World/dp/0152387420

The World of Myth: An Anthology by David Leeming - https://www.amazon.com/World-Myth-David-Adams-Leeming/dp/1522694676

Crash Course is on Patreon! You c

Cosmic Sexy Time, Eggs, Seeds, and Water: Crash Course World Mythology #3

In which Mike teaches you about the creation of the universe, with sex. This week we're talking about creations stories from Egypt, West Africa, Greece, China, and Persia that have a lot in common with human sexual reproduction. And also some castration and puking, to boot. We've got your cosmic eggs, right here!

Crash Course is made with Adobe Creative Cloud. Get a free trial here: https://www.adobe.com/creativecloud.html

Sources:
The World of Myth: An Anthology by David Leeming - https://www.amazon.com/World-Myth-David-Adams-Leeming/dp/1522694676

Satapatha Brahmana Part III (SBE41) translated by Julius Eggeling - http://sacred-texts.com/hin/sbr/sbe41/sbe4128.htm

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Mark, Les Aker, Robert Kunz, William McGraw, Jeffrey Thompson, Jason A Saslow, Rizwan

Earth Mothers and Rebellious Sons - Creation Part 3: Crash Course World Mythology #4

So, we’re still talking about sex this week, but we’re talking about Earth Mothers and their children. We'll start with Gaia, and her son Kronos, who had a classic childhood rebellion, and castrated his father. We'll also get into Kronos’s son Zeus, who would go on to dethrone his father. We’ll talk about Norse mythology, too, and look at the family that created the world, and worked together to make people.

Sources:
Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth by James E. Lovelock - https://www.amazon.com/Gaia-New-Look-Life-Earth/dp/0192862189

Fee and Leeming. “Gods, Heroes, and Kings: the Battle for Mythic Britain.” Quoted in Leeming, The World of Myth. Oxford U. Press 2014 pp. 32-33. - https://www.amazon.com/World-Myth-David-Adams-Leeming/dp/1522694676

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Social Orders and Creation Stories: Crash Course World Mythology #5

In which Mike Rugnetta sits you down for a little talk about myth as a way to construct or reinforce social orders. Specifically, we’re going to look today at stories from around the world that establish or amplify the idea that the errors of women have brought bad things into the world. We’re talking about the idea that death and disease and pain came into the world as a result of human (specifically woman human) action, and that men should therefore be considered superior to women. This idea, which on its face may sound a little out there to our modern ears, is persistent and pernicious. We’re interested in looking at the ways that stories make social orders. We’ll look at Abrahamic, Greek, and Japanese creation stories that have, over the millennia, served to push something of a social order agenda.

Sources:
Introduction to Mythology by Eva Thurry and Margaret Devinney - https://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Mythology-Contemporary-Approaches-Classical/dp/019985923X

Humans and Nature and Creation: Crash Course World Mythology #6

In which Mike Rugnetta brings you the final installation of our unit on creation myths. This week, we're talking about human beings and their relationship to the natural world. It turns out foundational stories have a lot to teach us about the ways in which people relate to the physical world around them, and the other organisms that inhabit that world. We'll talk about the Biblical idea that humans have dominion over animals, and we'll talk about Native American stories in which people and nature collaborate to create the world.

Sources:
We Didn't Domesticate Dogs, They Domesticated Us - http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/03/130302-dog-domestic-evolution-science-wolf-wolves-human/

Introduction to Mythology by Eva Thurry and Margaret Devinney - https://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Mythology-Contemporary-Approaches-Classical/dp/019985923X

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following Patr

Pantheons of the Ancient Mediterranean: Crash Course World Mythology #7

In which Mike Rugnetta begins our unit on pantheons, which are families of gods. We further define pantheons and talk about why they're important. Then, we discuss pantheons from the myths of the ancient Mediterranean, starting with ancient Sumer in Mesopotamia. The Egyptian pantheon brings us the story of Osiris and his envious brother Seth. We learn what these two pantheons suggest about the cultures where they originated.

Sources:
David Leeming, The World of Myth: An Anthology
Thury & Devinney, Introduction to Mythology.

Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Mark, Les Aker, Bob Kunz, William McGraw, Jeffrey Thompson, Ruth Perez, Jason A Saslow, Eric Prestemon, Malcolm Callis, Steve Marshall, Advait Shinde, Rachel Bright, Ian Dundore, Tim Curwick, Ken Penttinen, Dominic Dos Santos, Caleb Weeks, Kathrin Janßen, Nathan Taylor, Yana Leonor, Andrei Krishkevich, Brian Thomas Gossett, Chris Peters

Indian Pantheons: Crash Course World Mythology #8

In which Mike Rugnetta continues our unit on pantheons with the complex Indian pantheon, focusing on stories that were written in Sanskrit. We start with a violent creation story. We talk about the concept of Brahman, and the personification as three deities: Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Then, the goddess Durga teaches us how to behead a buffalo demon while riding a lion.

Sources:
Brockington, John, World Mythology, the Illustrated Guide.

Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Mark, Les Aker, Bob Kunz, William McGraw, Jeffrey Thompson, Ruth Perez, Jason A Saslow, Eric Prestemon, Malcolm Callis, Steve Marshall, Advait Shinde, Rachel Bright, Ian Dundore, Tim Curwick, Ken Penttinen, Dominic Dos Santos, Caleb Weeks, Kathrin Janßen, Nathan Taylor, Yana Leonor, Andrei Krishkevich, Brian Thomas Gossett, Chris Peters, Kathy & Tim Philip, Mayumi Maeda, Eric Kitchen, SR Foxley, Justin Zingsheim, Andrea Ba

The Greeks and Romans - Pantheons Part 3: Crash Course World Mythology #9

This week, we continue our look at various Pantheons, and Mike digs deep into the gods of the ancient Greeks. We're talking Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hades, Artemis, Hephaestos, Ares, and Apollo. We're also talking Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Pluto, Diana, Vulcan, Mars, and. Apollo. Similar gods, different names. We'll start with the origin stories of the gods, talk about their family relationships, and what exactly their specialties are.

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Thurry and Devinney: Introduction to Mythology

David Leeming: World of Myth: An anthology

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Mark, Les Aker, Bob Kunz, William McGraw, Jeffrey Thompson, Ruth Perez, Jason

The Norse Pantheon: Crash Course World Mythology #10

This week, we're headed north. To check out the gods of the Northmen. Or the Norse. That's right, we're talking Thor, Loki, Freyr, Freya, Odin, Frigg, Baldr, and Tyr. And Fenrir. And the Frost Giants. There's a lot to cover here, and it's going to be fun. Watch this prior to Ragnarok, as this video probably won't be available after the end of the universe.

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Our Sources:
Kevin Crossley-Holland, the Norse Myths. Pantheon Books. New York. 1980

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Mark, Les Aker, Bob Kunz, William McGraw, Jeffrey Thompson, Ruth Perez, Jason A Saslow, Eric Prestemon, Malcolm Callis, Steve Marshall, Advait Shinde, Rachel Bright, Ian Dun

African Pantheons and the Orishas: Crash Course World Mythology #11

So, today we’re talking about African Pantheons. Now, you might say, that’s ridiculous. Africa isn’t a single place with a single pantheon, and we’d be fools to try and cover all that in an eleven minute video. You’d be right. Instead we’re going to focus on Yoruba religion from west Africa, and the Orishas that populate Yoruba stories. The many, many Orishas cover all aspects of life, and can be pretty specialized. We’re going to focus on a dozen or so.

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Mark, Les Aker, Bob Kunz, Mark Austin, William McGraw, Jeffrey Thompson, Ruth Perez, Jason A Saslow, Eric Prestemon, Malcolm Callis, Steve Marshall, Advait Shinde, Rachel Bright, Ian Dundore, Tim Curwick, Ken Penttinen, Dominic Dos Santos, Caleb Weeks, Frantic Gonzalez, Kathrin Janßen, Nathan Taylor,

Theories of Myth: Crash Course World Mythology #12

This week, we're talking about theories of Myth. We'll look at the different ways mythology has been studied in the last couple of millenia, and talk about the diffeent ways people have interpreted myth, academically.

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Mark, Les Aker, Bob Kunz, Mark Austin, William McGraw, Jeffrey Thompson, Ruth Perez, Jason A Saslow, Eric Prestemon, Malcolm Callis, Steve Marshall, Advait Shinde, Rachel Bright, Ian Dundore, Tim Curwick, Ken Penttinen, Dominic Dos Santos, Caleb Weeks, Frantic Gonzalez, Kathrin Janßen, Nathan Taylor, Yana Leonor, Andrei Krishkevich, Brian Thomas Gossett, Chris Peters, Kathy & Tim Philip, Mayumi Maeda, Eric Kitchen, SR Foxley, Tom Trval, Andrea Bareis, Moritz Schmidt, Jessica Wode, Daniel Baulig, Jirat
--

Want to find Crash Course elsewh

Great Goddesses: Crash Course World Mythology #13

This week on Crash Course Mythology, we're talking archetypes. Specifically, we're talking about archetypes as they're applied to female deities. Goddesses, man. You'll learn about prehistoric fertility goddesses like the Venus of Willendorf, life and death goddesses like the Ancient Greek Fates and the Norse Norns. And we'll learn about regeneration goddesses like Ireland's Nimah, and Japan's Oto-Hime.

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever:

Mark, Les Aker, Bob Kunz, Mark Austin, William McGraw, Jeffrey Thompson, Ruth Perez, Jason A Saslow, Eric Prestemon, Malcolm Callis, Steve Marshall, Advait Shinde, Rachel Bright, Ian Dundore, Tim Curwick, Ken Penttinen, Dominic Dos Santos, Caleb Weeks, Frantic Gonzalez, Kathrin Janßen, Nathan Taylor, Yana Leonor, Andrei Krishkevich, Brian Thomas Gosse

Fire and Buffalo Goddesses: Crash Course World Mythology #14

This week, we’re continuing our talk about the characteristics of Goddesses, and we’re going to look in depth at two stories from parts of the world we haven’t visited much in this series so far. From Hawaii, we’re going to hear a story about Pe-le, the great goddess of the Hawaiian Islands, and we’ll hear the story of the gifts of the White Buffalo Calf Woman from Native American tradition. We’ll look at the similarities and the differences in these stories, and talk about how goddesses interact with the world and with humanity in pretty interesting ways.

Our sources:
Leonard & McClure, Myth and Knowing

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Mark, Les Aker, Bob Kunz, mark austin, William McGraw, Jeffrey Thompson, Ruth Perez, Jason A Saslow, Shawn Arnold, Eric Prestemon, Malcolm Callis,

Archetypes and Male Divinities: Crash Course World Mythology #15

This week on Crash Course Mythology, Mike is teaching you about the archetypes that are often associated with male divinities. We’re going to talk about Fathers & Sons, Kings & Judges, Saviors & Sages, Shamans, Tricksters, and Lords of Destruction. Along the way, we’ll look at the story of Hwaning, Hwanung, and Dangun from the Korean peninsula, and we’ll learn about Arjuna and all the help he got from Krishna. We’ll also touch on a ton of other myths from around the world. These things play out this way all the time, man.

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Our Sources:
Leonard & McClure - "Myth and Knowing"
William Doty - "Myth: A Handbook:

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Floods in the Ancient Near East: Crash Course World Mythology #16

This week on Crash Course mythology, Mike is talking to you about floods. You may have heard the story of Noah and the Ark from the Bible, but that is not the only deluge story humans tell. It's a common thing across culture. You could say the study of mythology is. flooded with them. Sorry. We'll be looking at floods from Mesopotamia from the Epic of Gilgamesh, and a flood story from the Zoroastrian tradition. And we'll look at a Roman flood story from Ovid's metamorphosis. It's a deluge of flood stories!

Most of the stories and quotations in this episode are adapted from David Leeming's Mythology textbook, "The World of Myth."

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Yu the Engineer and Flood Stories from China: Crash Course World Mythology #17

On this Crash Course in World Mythology, Mike Rugnetta is teaching you about floods and deluges, specifically in China. In Chinese myth, flood stories pretty much all revolve around a guy named Yu the Great, or Yu the Engineer. In the distant past, he was tasked with stopping the flooding on the Yangtze and Yellow rivers, and he did it. After working on the job for 13 years. Yu also founded the legendary Xia Dynasty. Yu exists as a sort of model for future emperors. He works tirelessly on behalf of his people, and always does the right thing. He's a good emperor, and a model for rulers to emulate. He's also super cool, and can turn into a bear when he needs to dig really fast.

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American Floods: Crash Course World Mythology #18

We don’t want to deluge you with information on the subject, but this week on Crash Course Mythology, Mike Rugnetta is talking once again about floods. We’re looking at ancient flood myths in the Americas, and what they can tell us about the stories that people tell, and how they can look similar, even in cultures separated by large swathes of time and space. We’ll talk about floods from Mayan and Aztec traditions, and as always, see if we can find something in these tales that gives us some insight into what it means to be a human.

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The Dying God: Crash Course World Mythology #19

This week on Crash Course World Mythology, it's the Circle of Life. And Death. And sometimes, Life again. Mike Rugnetta is teaching you about Dying Gods, by which I mean gods that die, and then return to life. You'll learn about the Corn Mother from Native American Traditions, Adonis of the Greek and Roman pantheon, Odin of the Norse, and a little about the most famous dying deity, Jesus. These aren't all the dying gods in the world, but it's a good introduction to the archetype.

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Welcome to Crash Course World Mythology, our latest adventure (and this series may be literally adventurous) in education. Over the next 40 episodes or so, we and Mike Rugnetta are going to learn about the world by looking at the foundational stories of a bunch of different cultural traditions. We’re going to look at the ways that people’s stories define them, and the ways they shape their culture. We’re going to learn about gods, goddesses, heroes, and tricksters, and a lot more. We’re going to walk the blurry line between myth and religion, and we’re going to like it.

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Hello, my name is Mike Rugnetta, and this is Crash Course Mythology.

Mythology is a complicated subject: it touches on literature, history, anthropology, sociology, psychology, religion, and even science. How you ever tried to make a Slurpee mixing all of the flavors together? Mythology is exactly like that, but it's a Slurpee of knowledge, with no brain freeze and a lot to learn. So maybe actually a tiny brain freeze, but a different kind of brain freeze.

What I'm trying to say is that, don't be surprised if some of what you hear in the next forty or so episodes echoes some of the things you may have heard in other Crash Courses. And don't worry if what you hear in one episode reminds you of what you've heard in another.

We do that on purpose and usually, we know what we're doing. Right, Thoth, ancient Egyptian god of knowledge with an awesome ibis head? Right.

Do ibis-headed gods like bird seed?

We have so much to learn ahead!

There are a couple of reasons mythology is a more difficult subject than some of the others we've tackled. One is that many myths are very, very old, and often exist in many versions. So just keep that in mind when we discuss a particular myth during the series.

If you've heard the myth in a different form, it doesn't mean that we've gotten it wrong, though that is always possible - just ask Atë, the Greek goddess of folly. It just may be that we're working from a different version of the myth. We'll try to put references to the versions that we're using in the show notes. Sometimes, we'll even be presenting composites of a number of different tellings of these myths.

Another difficulty with mythology is that it's open to so many interpretations. Are myths records of historical fact? Deliberate fictions? Ways of understanding otherwise incomprehensible events? Misunderstandings? We are not in a position to say. It's the kind of thing that scholars spend their entire lives arguing about.

Along with the myths, we're gonna present possible interpretations, but let's be clear: these are interpretations, not facts in the sense that their meanings can be confirmed by a weight of evidence.

Mythology has been argued about and theorized for over a hundred years, and many myths can be read, and understood, in a number of ways. When presenting interpretations, we're gonna let you know that we're doing that, so that you don't think that we're presenting an interpretation as a fact. Because that will get us into arguments, and we would love to avoid those.

This is also probably a good time to point out that in many instances, the line between myth and religion is blurry. And, as we're gonna explain in a minute, we're working with a definition of myth that focuses on story, rather than truth.

When one views myths primarily as stories or as literary artifacts, it allows you to enjoy them and think about them apart from their value as structures of religious belief. So, when we recount stories from the Bible as myths, we're not definitively saying that they're either true or untrue, just that they're stories that people have used in a variety of ways over time.

A third problem in discussing myth is that most myths don't have nameable authors, or even when they do, like Homer or Virgil, it turns out these guys were really just recasting older stories into new language. Most of the time, we don't know who originated myths, or how, or why, but, luckily, for our purposes here, that actually doesn't matter much.

But the last problem we have to talk about does matter. And that's the difficulty of finding a good, working definition for the word "myth." This is tricky, especially given the way we use the word in contemporary English. Much of the time, when we say something is a myth, what we mean is that it's not true. For example, the idea that you swallow eight spiders a year while you're sleeping - it's not true. It's a myth.

Not sure if this applies to Australians though I would wager that you guys swallow at least eight spiders a year. Everything I know about Australia, I learned from the internet.

Because we use the term myth to mean something that isn't true, we can come away with the definition of myth as a story that is false and not to be taken seriously. But myths have been taken seriously. By scholars, sure, but more importantly, by generations and generations of people who've heard these stories, and found in them something worth telling again.

Which is not to say people don't question their myths. Philosophers were writing about the absurdity of Greek myths as far back as the sixth century B.C.E., probably even earlier.

So if a myth isn't just a story that someone made up or a word that we use to label something as false, then what is it?

Myth comes from the Greek word "mythos" - which means word or, more significantly, story. That doesn't mean every myth, or even the most important ones are Greek, but those will probably be the ones most familiar to our viewers in American and Europe. At least, until the new Rick Riordan series gets going.

And honestly, if goddesses of love, Aphrodite and Freya, ever got into an arm wrestling competition, Aphrodite would TOTALLY dominate, because Freya cries golden tears, and Aphrodite kills people. BOOM. Sorry, I got sidetracked by Greek myths that's gonna happen a lot. Just ask Hermes, Greek god of roads.

So, we're gonna start by saying that a myth is a story, but it's a special kind of story, that for the purposes of this series has two primary characteristics: significance and staying power.

This means that the subject matter is about something important, something about how the world works or how the world itself got going, how things came to be. And then there's staying power. These are stories that have survived centuries, sometimes millennia and this is testament to the deep meaning or functional importance of these stories to the people who hear and tell them.

Now, if I know Crash Course fans, there are probably some people right now saying, "Mike, it sounds like you might lump in folktales, and maybe even fairy tales, with your myths."

I'm not gonna lie. There may be a folktale that creeps in from time to time, but we're gonna steer clear of fairy tales for the most part. For die hard folklorists - and yes, that is a thing - proper myths only deal with the creation or the world, or maybe the universe, and thus, all real myths are religious, or quasi-religious.

Mythology theorists who come at myths from a religious studies angle tend to say that the main characters of myths must be gods, but this leaves out hero stories, which I think are pretty important, and also, those are the ones with the sea monsters, so we're gonna include those too.

There are also those myths that don't feature any supernatural elements at all - what Professor Robert Segal calls beliefs, or credos. Most Americans will be familiar with the "rags to riches" story of the American dream. Those stories are myths - not because they aren't true -sometimes poor people do become rich and successful in spite of tough upbringings, and largely because of grit and hard work. They're myths not because they have religious significance, they're mythic because of their staying power and the tenacity with which proponents of the myth take them to be true. Because these types of stories fit into our broad definition of a significant story were personalities are the lead characters, we will be talking about them - but only in a later episode.

At this point, it might be a good idea to give an example of the kind of stories we'll be talking about in this series. And, to do so, I'm gonna go to Greece. YAY! Greece! Wine-dark seas, delicious olives, beautiful ruins, anti-austerity protests, and the setting for the story of Persephone.

Take us there, Thought Bubble.

Persephone was the daughter of the harvest goddess, Demeter, and supreme god, Zeus, who were brother and sister - we'll get into all that weird incest stuff later - and her original name was Kore, which can be translated as "girl."

One day, Kore was out picking flowers when she caught the eye of Zeus's brother, Hades, who rode up from the underworld (also confusingly called Hades) and kidnapped her to make her his wife and also probably raped her, but again we're gonna save the deeply uncomfortable sexual content for another episode except for this brief mention right here. Sorry.

Kore was understandably upset. Demeter was full on enraged and threatened to make all mankind starve, so finally, Zeus had to go and ask his brother to give Kore back.

In some versions of this myth, this was a problem for Zeus, because he had promised Kore to his brother as a wife, without telling Demeter first. Hades was not a dumb guy, and before he let Kore go, he offered her a snack. Kore had been warned to never eat anything in the underworld, but she must've been extremely hungry by then, and really, I mean, how much harm could six honey sweet pomegranate seeds really do? Well, turns out, a lot.

In some versions, she eats them on purpose because she actually liked her husband. In others, she's tricked into it. Either way, even six seeds matter.

Kore has to remain in the underworld for six months out of the one month for each seed that she ate, and will spend the other six months on Olympus with her parents. During the six months in Olympus, Demeter would allow the fruits and grains to flourish. The rest of the time, Demeter would mourn Kore, who had renamed herself Persephone, and the ground would freeze, and nothing would grow and that is why we have winter.

So, this is a story that is significant because of its explanatory power. The fancy term for this is an etiological narrative, or origin story. The Persephone myth explains the seasons, relating the cycle of planting and harvest to the actions of the immortals.

For some mythologists, like E. B. Tylor, this story is an example of myth as primitive science. Tylor and many other theorists drew a distinction between primitive people, who used myths to explain the world in which they lived, and modern people, who use science for that purpose. For Tylor, myth and science can't really be reconciled science has taken the place of myth, so we don't need myths anymore.

This is a pretty hardcore theory, and since we like to view things complexly here at Crash Course, we're not gonna subscribe to it, or any theory, wholeheartedly. But we are gonna introduce some of these theories to you, so that you can make up your own mind.

Right now we're not gonna get too deep into the theory of myths - mythography, if you wanna thrill your friends and impress people at parties. Because I want to tell you where the series is planning to go, but also because there are a lot of theories to mythology, and I don't want to include too many of them in this introduction.

As long time viewers know, it's easy to get lost in the weeds once we start talking about theory, which is part of the reason we love theory so much. And it's one of the reasons we have eight Sanskrit deities who are guardians of the right direction. This series isn't going to be comprehensive. We can't present everything there is to know about thousand-year-old stories in four hundred odd minutes of video.

But we are gonna try to introduce you to some myths you might not know, from places that you might be less familiar with. This approach is gonna be comparative and thematic, rather than geographic. Here's what we're planning.

The first theme we'll be covering is the most difficult: creation myths. Most cultures have some story of how the world and the people in it came to be and we're gonna spend a few weeks working through them. Be forewarned, creation myths are often mysterious, the language can tricky or obscure, so expect a bit of confusion and a lot of interpretation. Also some turtles for a significant distance in the downward direction. It's turtles all the way down.

After we see how the world and, sometimes, the universe was created, we're gonna examine pantheons: the groups of gods that feature in stories from different cultures, and how they function in those cultures.

And then we're gonna take a look at how the universe was destroyed - looking at flood myths and the apocalypse. Now, obviously, this puts us in the realm of religion and the potential for challenging people's belief systems is high. Like we said earlier, we're gonna try to focus on the stories, and leave questions of truth and belief up to you.

In the second half of the series, we'll come down from Olympus and Valhalla and all those various mountains we're gonna do about ten episodes on heroes from all over the world, which should be really fun, maybe even super. See what I did there?

After heroes, we're gonna talk about mythical places and creatures and objects like winged sandals, and we'll finish up with a few episodes on myths in the modern world, which, for viewers of Crash Course Psychology and Literature, might sound a bit familiar.

So, that is the broad outline of this series. We're really excited to be bringing this to you, really hope you enjoy it. Will it become the stuff of legend? Just ask Balder, Norse god of joy.

We'll see you next week. Crash Course Mythology is filmed in the Chad & Stacey Emigholz studio in Indianapolis, Indiana and is produced with the help of all these nice people. Our animation team is Thought Cafe.

Crash Course exists thanks to the generous support of our patrons at Patreon. Patreon is a voluntary subscription service where you can support the content you love through a monthly donation and help keep Crash Course free, for everyone, forever.

Thanks for watching, and if you're ever in the underworld, DON'T EAT ANYTHING.

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Mythology and Folklore

Once upon a time, the beloved Queen Aurora and King Philip ruled over a happy kingdom. The people rejoiced when their first child, Prince Adalrico was born and a few years later rejoiced again At the birth of Princess Aurelia.

This happiness could not last, however. Queen Aurora became sick and weak, and on her deathbed, King Philip promised that he would never forget her and would not even marry again unless it was with her unique golden hair.

The kingdom mourned the loss of their queen but soon wished for a new Queen to take on royal duties. King Philip at first was adamant he would not marry, but when his advisers said someone must fulfill the Queenly duties, he remembered his promise to only marry with the unique golden hair of his wife. Reluctant, the advisers searched through the lands for a woman with the same hair as the prior Queen, but none were to be found. This passed on for multiple years and in the meantime the young Prince Philip and Princess Aurelia grew into their teens. When the grieved King Philip met with his children one day, he saw that his daughter Aurelia had inherited her mother's hair and decreed that she must become his bride. Despite the adamant protests of such an abominable act from the royal advisers, the priests, and his children, King Philip was not deterred.

Princess Aurelia understood her father had gone mad. She decided to buy herself time by saying that she would agree to marry her father if he gave her special gifts. Three dresses spun from the light of the Sun, Moon, and Stars, as well as a cloak made from one thousand furs given freely. However, King Philip managed to complete these tasks with the help of the Royal Magicians. In despair, Princess Aurelia was forced to flee into the forests surrounding the castle, only able to grab the three dresses and don the cloak on her shoulders.

Aurelia found a small abandoned house in a rural village and decided to rest there. However, shortly after she arrived, news from her father reached the village. The Mad King claimed that Princess Aurelia had been kidnapped with the help of their prince, who was thrown into the dungeons for his treachery. Any that could find the princess and return her safely would be granted a grand reward, such as a noble title, land, and gold.

And so Aurelia was forced to flee the kingdom and ran for many days through the wilderness into a neighboring kingdom until she, at last, stopped to rest in a hollow tree. A stick poked her awake. It was a royal envoy led by none other than the neighboring King Cedric. Aurelia was asked questions, such as who she was and why she was sleeping in the middle of nowhere.

Aurelia had heard of King Cedric's kindness and wished she could petition him for aid to stop her father and save her brother. However, would King Cedric help her and risk an international conflict or turn her in and be granted a favor. Aurelia knew that the best way to determine one's character is to see how they treat their inferiors. She decided to lie and tell the envoy she had gotten lost on her journey to find work. Out of some intent, more likely pity, Aurelia was hired to work as a kitchenmaid in the palace.

However, the life of a princess did little to prepare her for brunt work. Along with her clumsy attempts to clean the dishes, Aurelia was often scolded for covering the floors with hair from her fur cloak. They become more disapproving when Aurelia was adamant to never take it off. After all, her golden hair was a recognizable trait of her family. When the head kitchen servant petitioned the King to fire her, King Cedric agreed, but not before giving Aurelia another job.

"Your fur cloak is always kept so neat and clean. Why don't you help groom my horse," the king had said.

And so Aurelia began to attend the King's personal steed, with a daily visit from the king. Although the King only stayed for a few minutes, Aurelia took those moments and analyzed the King's true character. Aurelia discovered that King Cedric was as good as the tales claimed, and she resolved to ask him for assistance, not as the servant with the funny cloak, but as Princess Aurelia. And she knew just when to meet with him.

A week-long ball would take place at the castle, which gave Aurelia plenty of time to meet the King. On the first night of the ball, Princess Aurelia donned her sunlight dress. When she entered the hall, heads turned at the golden lady. The crowd part for her and Princess Aurelia made her way to King Cedric. When she asked if they could speak privately, King Cedric asked if they could have a dance first. Aurelia missed her palace life and dancing at balls, so she agreed. The two danced until the night was over, and Aurelia had to return as a servant for the next day of work.

The next night, Aurelia donned the moonlight dress and the night after that the starlight dance. However, each time, Aurelia became so happy to dance with a kind, handsome partner like King Cedric that all of her troubles melted away. However, one the last night, those troubles returned, when she overheard politics at the ball about her father's erratic behavior and the execution of her brother! It was here that Aurelia asked King Cedric to listen to her. However, King Cedric didn't need to be told!

"I apologize, Princess Aurelia, but I already saw through your disguise. Wisps of your golden hair would sometimes fall in front of your face, which is how I recognized you.

"I was afraid that you would leave. Aside from your excellent company, you sometimes acted like a cornered animal and from the rumors I've heard, I can understand why. A princess wouldn't be working as a servant unless she was afraid of going home. I didn't tell you because I was afraid you would run away and put yourself in danger. Though by the look on your face you have been able to handle yourself this whole time. I apologize for my presumption."

Aurelia and Cedric's conversation continued with a promise from King Cedric to stop Prince Adalrico's execution. With King Cedric's aid, an attack on Aurelia's old home led to the capture of Mad King Philip and the rescue of Prince Adalrico. News of King Philip's madness spread and the people rejoiced when Aldelrico was crowned king. Aurelia stayed in her home country and helped govern but soon she caught herself thinking to kind eyes within a graceful dance partner. King Cedric courted Princess Aurelia for a few years and the two married, living happily ever after.

Originally the princess was named Allerleirauh. I decided to change this because I had an idea where only the royal family is allowed to have certain names, such as those meaning "dawn," "gold," etc., which is because of the bloodline's special golden hair trait.

I chose Aurora as the dead queen's namebecause it means "Dawn" and its the name of the goddess of dawn in Roman mythology (though I did hear this name first from Disney's Sleeping Beauty).

Aurelia means "golden" and sometimes "dawn." Both Aurelia and Auroura are named for their golden hair.

Adalrico means noble, powerful and rich.

Cedric means kind and loved.

In the original story, the dying Queen asked her husband to not marry unless he found another woman with the same golden hair she did. I thought this was a strange thing to ask on your deathbed so instead, I decided it would be more interesting if the King had imposed those conditions on himself. Initially, it would mean, I will marry again only if its with you, my Queen," only for the King to twist this intent to marry a woman with the same hair had his prior wife when he has to marry again.

Another change I made was what job the princess had. In the original, the Princess continued to work in the kitchens, but I thought no cook would risk all that animal fur getting into the food. I decided she would work in the stables because animal hair from the horses is already there.

I decided to make the king more of a threat. In the original, the mad king is never mentioned again after the princess flees to another kingdom. I thought, if the people knew the king went mad, they would surely agree that another person should hold the crown. However, I also wanted the princess and neighboring king to get together, which would be difficult if they rule separate kingdoms. For this, I created Aurelia's brother, Adelrico, who would become a king. However, I also thought: Why didn't Adelrico stop his father? I decided to fill this plothole by the King pretending that his son had been killed and that his daughter had been kidnapped and offering a rich reward to anyone who brings her back unharmed. This gives a motivation for the people to find the princess and reason for the princess to flee all the way to another kingdom. This also makes the King a threat so the princess has a motivation to stop him.

Original Story: "Allerleirauh" from Household Tales by Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm (1884), translated by Margaret Hunt. Source.

Image Information: Allerleirauh illustration by Otto Ubbelohde. Source.


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Movies didn't always look like they do now. There was a period (kind of a problematic one) where movies transitioned from short novelties to big, epic, feature films. That's our focus this week as Craig talks to us about the birth of the feature film and the work of D.W. Griffith.

Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

Images and Video Used are in the Public Domain and from the Library of Congress.

If you&rsquove been joining me from the beginning of our journey through the history of film, you might&rsquove noticed something.

None of the films that I&rsquove talked about so far look like the movies you see today. Yes, Ryan Gosling got very little play in the late 1800s.

But what I really mean is: We haven&rsquot talked much about story. Character. Narrative.

Like, you don&rsquot go the the megaplex today, buy a bunch of popcorn, and sit down to watch movies of trains entering stations, or horses running in slow motion. That&rsquos because, there was a period in the history of film &ndash a really important and kind of problematic one &ndash when film evolved, from a technical curiosity into a powerful visual storytelling machine. Artists, technicians, and engineers started devising ways of making films longer, more complex, and more narrative.

This is when it began to develop its own language, through the power of editing. And the way films were made, and watched, became more familiar, too. Film studios began to pop up.

Movie theaters proliferated. Systems were created to develop film, shuttle movies from theater to theater, and publicize them to hungry audiences. As film&rsquos physical and economic imprint became more stable, so too did its visual language, taking a shape that more closely resembles the movies you see today.

And this was due in large part to the exhaustive work of D. W. Griffith, a failed actor-turned-filmmaker whose own legacy was as complicated and sprawling as one of his films.

It&rsquos time to tackle D. W. Griffith and the arrival of the feature film.

As the film industry took root, that whole system began to take a shape that&rsquos recognizable to us modern movie-goers.

First, there&rsquos the studio. When an entertainment company grows big enough to have its own production facilities &ndash from offices and sound stages to props, costumes, and editing rooms, we call it a studio. The studio is where the films are made by the production company.

Second is the distributor. Its job is to market the movie to its audience, book the films onto screens, and then deliver them to the theaters. So the distributor actually gets the films out into the world.

Thank you, distributor. I like watching movies. Finally, we have the exhibitor.

This is the company that actually provides the film to the audience. Movie theaters and big theater chains are exhibitors, as are streaming services and DVD rental companies. In the first few decades of film production in the US, many of these companies were vertically integrated.

That means that the studio owned the production company. And the distribution company. And even the exhibition company.

While this made a lot of sense for the owners of the studios &ndash to be able to control the process from production to exhibition &ndash it would eventually be ruled a monopoly. At that point, the studios would be forced to break off their distribution and exhibition businesses and open the field to competition. But that came later.

In the early days &ndash from about 1907 to 1913 &ndash the major film studios had tremendous power. like me. Eager to please a growing and ravenous audience, these studios looked to the success that manufacturers like Henry Ford were having with mass production, and tried to make films in a kind of &ldquoassembly line&rdquo process. Write the film, shoot the film, edit the film, distribute the film, screen the film, and repeat.

As fast as possible, and as often as possible. That's how you make art! It was about quantity, not quality.

If the movies were good, that was cool but it wasn&rsquot the goal. Experimentation of any kind was discouraged. Time was money.

The standard length of these films was about 10 to 16 minutes, or one reel of film. The creative name they came up for these films? &ldquoOne reelers.&rdquo But despite the flattening out of quality, this was a period of astronomical growth for the film industry, in the US and western Europe in particular. Demand was through the roof, and filmmakers were working overtime trying to meet it.

They were also stealing. Copyright law was still in its infancy, and &ndash as with books prior to 1893 &ndash most films were considered to be in the public domain. This meant that prints could be stolen and duplicated without legal consequences.

It was kind of the Wild West, and it can be as confusing to make sense of as it was to live through. YEE-HAW! So let&rsquos see if we can work our way through it.

The person in the best position to bring some order to the chaos of this burgeoning film industry is our old friend Thomas Edison. Edison claimed that he held the patents on several elements in almost all motion picture cameras and projectors. So he believed he was entitled to a cut of every camera and projector sold, as well as every movie that was made, sold, or screened.

And who was the competitor who most got under his skin? His former lab assistant &ndash and the man who actually invented the first motion picture camera &ndash William Dickson. After he left Edison, Dickson started his own production company called Biograph, which made films using a camera similar to Edison&rsquos kinetograph, but different enough to survive a lawsuit.

And sue Edison did. No fewer than 20 times in just a few years. I mean, Edison was suing everybody.

This era became known as the Patent Wars, as gangs of men connected to Edison were known to show up at independent film studios and threaten the filmmakers. Eventually Edison realized that he was wasting time and money in court. Independent producers and distributors were popping up all over the place, and he was left playing this big, high-stakes game of whack-a-mole.

Sounds like fun, but it's not. trust me. So he proposed a truce, and partnered with Dickson&rsquos Biograph and eight other major film studios, the country&rsquos leading film distributor, and George Eastman, the biggest supplier of film stock. Together, they created the Motion Picture Patents Company, also known as &ldquothe Trust,&rdquo an effective monopoly on film production and distribution in the United States.

Instead of selling films to distributors and exhibitors, studios would rent them out, and retain all legal rights to them. This gave studios control over which films were screened, how often, and in which theaters. Sounds great! . no it doesn't.

Plus, because Eastman was a member of the MPCC, independent film companies couldn&rsquot get their hands on film stock without permission. Which meant that Edison got to decide who could and couldn&rsquot make movies! In addition to the stranglehold that the Trust put on the industry, it also promoted the assembly line process of film production.

As a result, the films themselves by and large became unimaginative, stale, and static. But, the independents refused to go quietly. They banded together to form groups aimed at resisting Edison and the MPPC.

The last and most successful of these was the Motion Picture Distributing and Sales Company. Many of them also decided to move their production facilities as far away from Edison&rsquos New Jersey headquarters as possible. Can you guess where they ended up.

Not Synecdoche. That&rsquos right: Hollywood, California, which had the added benefits of year-round sunshine and a diverse and handy assortment of natural landscapes. And earthquakes.

That's not a benefit it's just something they had. Finally, in 1918, the United States Supreme Court broke up the MPPC and ordered film studios to sever their distribution and exhibition branches, ending Edison&rsquos run as American film&rsquos great gatekeeper. While all this was going on, films themselves were struggling to change, and though no one knew it yet, features were on the way.

A feature film is a movie with a running time long enough to be considered the principal film in a program. Usually, features clock in at between 70 and 130 minutes. When Edison&rsquos posse was in control, the MPPC strictly forbade films longer than one reel, or 10 to 16 minutes.

So filmmakers began looking for creative ways around the length restriction. Some would make two reelers and then show them in a serial format &ndash the first reel this week, the second next week. Sort of like what they did with the last Harry Potter book.

I&rsquom still not over that. Three films in particular paved the way for features by convincing studios that longer films could be commercially successful. The first was The Crusaders, an Italian film from 1911 that was four reels long.

The second was another 4-reeler, a French film called The Loves of Queen Elizabeth, that starred megastar Sarah Bernhardt and made a ton of money in 1912. And finally, Quo Vadis, a 1913 Italian spectacle that boasted huge crowd scenes and big special effects, and ran nine reels in length! And working steadily through all of this was a director named D.

W. Griffith. The son of a Confederate colonel, Griffith was a failed stage actor who happened to be on an Edwin S.

Porter set one day and fell in love with film. Within a few months, he was directing one reelers at an astonishing rate &ndash he would go on to make more than 450 in less than a decade. What&rsquos even more impressive, he was able to integrate an actor&rsquos understanding of nuance and character with the film grammar laid down by pioneers like Porter.

He made incredible innovations in how a film could be shot and cut. And most importantly, he grounded all of his new techniques in the service of character and story. For example, Griffith is credited with innovating the close-up &ndash cutting to a shot of a character&rsquos face at a moment of high drama.

This also required &ndash and rewarded &ndash a more subtle style of acting than film actors often delivered. Can we cut to a close up, Nick?

Nick: No. Drama, right? Are we in a close up?

Why? He used insert shots &ndash close-ups of objects or characters&rsquo hands &ndash to draw attention to symbolic props or key narrative moments. He used increasingly extensive flashbacks to add depth to characters and their stories. And he found ingenious ways to use cross-cutting to engage the audience on a deep level, to make us empathize with his characters, to really care about what was happening to them. It&rsquos remarkable how modern his films feel today. So I'm gonna remark on it. Sure, they&rsquore in black and white, and they&rsquore short, and they don&rsquot star Captain America or Vin Diesel&rsquos car or an Oscar-worthy bucket of tears. But the way the shots are framed and arranged hasn&rsquot changed all that much since Griffith. And Griffith&rsquos biggest achievement was the film Birth of a Nation.

This is the film that paved the way for feature-length films to become the gold standard. It was successful enough &ndash both financially and in terms of its massive scope mixed with its detailed attention to character, emotion, and story &ndash that audiences demanded more like it, and would no longer be satisfied with a program of half a dozen one reelers. Birth of a Nation is also a deeply racist film. It offers an extremely sympathetic view of white southern former slaveholders under Reconstruction. The heroes at the end of the film are the reborn Ku Klux Klan, who ride across the countryside, racing to save poor white southerners besieged by mobs of murderous former slaves. It&rsquos stunningly effective in its use of cross-cutting and screen direction it&rsquos also profoundly disturbing in its message and imagery. This is the double-edged sword of D. W. Griffith: a master of cinema on one hand, and an apologist for a legacy of hatred, violence, and persecution, whose work inspired actual hate groups to reconstitute in this country. The film faced protests at the time, particularly in places like Chicago, where people of all ethnic backgrounds objected to its twisted view of history and race relations. And there was a very small but vibrant underground African American film industry at the time that responded to the racism of Birth of a Nation with films of their own. Most famous was Oscar Micheaux&rsquos Within Our Gates, released in 1920, the story of a mixed-race school teacher who encounters violence and prejudice as she tries to make a better life for herself. The most successful African American filmmaker of the time, Micheaux examined the racial climate in the United States in a way that&rsquos as nuanced and searing as Griffith&rsquos is bigoted and inaccurate. Whatever else it is, Birth of a Nation marked the end of the Silent Shorts era, and challenged film studios to allow filmmakers to make longer, more complex films that told grand stories with unique characters and powerful emotions. The pictures may have moved before Griffith, but now the audience was moved too.

Today we talked about how the film industry is divided up into studios, distributors, and exhibitors &ndash and how all those systems used to be controlled by the same people. Then, we discussed the independent filmmakers who resisted the monopolies, started up Hollywood, and began creating longer feature films instead of one reelers. We introduced D. W. Griffith who was an innovator and master of film language, but his biggest achievement was a film cloaked in hate and racism.

And next time, we&rsquoll talk about how the violence and politics of World War I influenced cinema, and how filmmakers began to experiment with horror, psychological twists, and the distortion of reality. Crash Course Film History is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios. You can head over to their channel to check out a playlist of their latest amazing shows, like Shank&rsquos FX, Indie Alaska, and Deep Look. This episode of Crash Course was filmed in the Doctor Cheryl C. Kinney Crash Course Studio with the help of these one reelers and our amazing graphics team, is Thought Cafe.

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We have made it easy for you to find a PDF Ebooks without any digging. And by having access to our ebooks online or by storing it on your computer, you have convenient answers with Theories Of Mythology Ancient Cultures. To get started finding Theories Of Mythology Ancient Cultures, you are right to find our website which has a comprehensive collection of manuals listed.
Our library is the biggest of these that have literally hundreds of thousands of different products represented.

Finally I get this ebook, thanks for all these Theories Of Mythology Ancient Cultures I can get now!

I did not think that this would work, my best friend showed me this website, and it does! I get my most wanted eBook

wtf this great ebook for free?!

My friends are so mad that they do not know how I have all the high quality ebook which they do not!

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Chapter 3: Jung – Analytical Psychology

Carl Jung brought an almost mystical approach to psychodynamic theory. An early associate and follower of Freud, Jung eventually disagreed with Freud on too many aspects of personality theory to remain within a strictly Freudian perspective. Subsequently, Jung developed his own theory, which applied concepts from natural laws (primarily in physics) to psychological functioning. Jung also introduced the concept of personality types, and began to address personality development throughout the lifespan. In his most unique contribution, at least from a Western perspective, Jung proposed that the human psyche contains within itself psychological constructs developed throughout the evolution of the human species.

Jung has always been controversial and confusing. His blending of psychology and religion, as well as his openness to different religious and spiritual philosophies, was not easy to accept for many psychiatrists and psychologists trying to pursue a purely scientific explanation of personality and mental illness. Perhaps no one was more upset than Freud, whose attitude toward Jung changed dramatically over just a few years.

Who was this man who inspired such profound confidence from Sigmund Freud, only to later inspire such contempt? And were his theories that difficult for the psychodynamic community, or psychology in general, to accept? Hopefully, this chapter will begin to answer those questions. As evidence of his character, and in contrast to Freud, Jung did not turn his back on his former mentor. Following Freud’s death in 1939, and later in 1957, Jung wrote the following:

[Freud’s work was]…surely the boldest attempt ever made on the apparently solid ground of empiricism to master the riddle of the unconscious psyche. For us young psychiatrists, it was a source of enlightenment… (pg. 29 cited in Wehr, 1989)

Brief Biography of Carl Jung

At the beginning of his autobiography, entitled Memories, Dreams, Reflections, Jung (1961) described his life as “a story of the self-realization of the unconscious.” Jung believed that our personality begins with a collective unconscious, developed within our species throughout time, and that we have only limited ability to control the psychic process that is our own personality. Thus, our true personality arises from within as our collective unconscious comes forth into our personal unconscious and then our consciousness.

Carl Gustav Jung was born on July 26th, 1875, in the small town of Kesswil, Switzerland, into an interesting and notable family. His grandfather of the same name had been a physician, and had established the psychiatric clinic at the University of Basel and the “Home of Good Hope” for mentally disabled children. At an early age, Jung had been imprisoned for over a year for the crime of having participated in a demonstration supporting democracy in Germany. Rumored to be an illegitimate son of the great Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, though there is no convincing evidence, the elder Carl Jung died before his namesake grandson ever knew him. Nonetheless, Jung was greatly influenced by the stories he heard about his grandfather. His maternal grandfather, Samuel Preiswerk, was the dean of the Basel (Switzerland) clergy and pastor of a major church. He was one the first people in Europe to suggest a restoration of Palestine to the Jews, thus establishing himself as a forerunner to the Zionists. Samuel Preiswerk also believed that he was regularly surrounded by spirits (or ghosts), something that likely had quite an influence on Jung’s theories (Jaffe, 1979 Wehr, 1989).

Jung’s father, Johann Paul Achilles Jung, married Emilie Preiswerk in 1874. Johann Jung was a scholar of Oriental languages, studied Arabic, and was an ordained minister. In addition to being a pastor at two churches during Jung’s childhood, Johann Jung was the pastor at Friedmatt, the insane asylum in Basel. During Jung’s early childhood, he did not always have the best of relationship with his parents. He considered his mother to be a good mother, but he felt that her true personality was always hidden. She spent some time in the hospital when he was three years old, in part due to problems in her marriage. Jung found this separation from his mother deeply troubling, and he became mistrustful of the spoken word “love.” Since his father was a pastor, there were often funerals and burials, all of which was very mysterious to the young Jung. In addition, his mother was considered a spiritual medium, and often helped Jung with his later studies on the occult. Perhaps most troubling of all, was Jung’s belief that his father did not really know God, but rather, had become a minister trapped in the performance of meaningless ritual (Jaffe, 1979 Jung, 1961 Wehr, 1989).

An only child until he was 9, Jung preferred to be left alone, or at least he came to accept his loneliness. Even when his parent’s guests brought their children over for visits, Jung would simply play his games alone. He also had extraordinarily rich and meaningful dreams, many of which were quite frightening, and they often involved deeply religious themes. This is hardly surprising, since two uncles on his father’s side of the family were ministers, and there were six more ministers on his mother’s side. Thus, he was often engaged in religious discussions at home. He was particularly impressed with a richly illustrated book on Hinduism, with pictures of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva (the Hindu trinity of gods). Even at 6 years old, he felt a vague connection with the Hindu gods, something that once again would have an interesting influence on his later theories. These dreams led Jung into deep religious speculations, something he considered to be a secret that he could not share with anyone else (Jaffe, 1979 Jung, 1961 Wehr, 1989).

Jung’s school-age years were a mixture of experiences. He enjoyed school, in the sense that it was easy for him and he found other children to play with. However, he also began studying Latin with his father and taking divinity classes. He found the classes on religion terribly boring, and the more he got to know his father, the less he believed that his father understood either God, religion, or spirituality. It didn’t help that he was well-aware of the continued turmoil in his parent’s marriage. At the age of 11, he began attending the Gymnasium in Basel (similar to an advanced high school). The other children were quite wealthy, and Jung became aware of how poor they were. Although this led him to feel some compassion for his father, the Gymnasium created a number of problems. Jung simply did not understand mathematics, his divinity classes became unbearably boring, and therefore, school itself became boring. This led to a severe neurosis at the age of 12 (Jaffe, 1979 Jung, 1961 Wehr, 1989).

Jung had been knocked down by another boy on the way home from school, at which time he hit his head on a rock, and was nearly knocked out. He was so dizzy that others had to help him, and he suddenly realized that he did not have to go to school if he was ill. Consequently, he began having fainting spells any time he was sent to school or to do his homework. He missed 6 months of school due his psychological problems, and Jung loved the opportunity to spend his days exploring the world in any way he wished. He was eventually diagnosed with epilepsy, though Jung himself knew the diagnosis was ridiculous. One day he heard his father expressing great fear to a friend about what would become of Jung if he were unable to earn his own living. The reality of this statement was shocking to Jung, and “From that moment on I became a serious child.” He immediately went to study Latin, and began to feel faint. However, he consciously made himself aware of his neurosis, and cognitively fought it off. He soon returned to school, recognizing “That was when I learned what a neurosis is” (Jaffe, 1979 Jung, 1961 Wehr, 1989).

As he continued through school, his personal life continued to be quite strange. He began to believe that he was two people, one having lived 100 years earlier. He also had heated religious debates with his father. Fueling his courage during these debates was his belief that a vision had led to his understanding of true spirituality.

However, Jung was not able to ignore his vision. He was tormented for days, and spent sleepless nights wondering why he would have to think something unforgivable as a result of praising God for the beauty of all creation. His mother saw how troubled he was, but Jung felt that he could not dare confide in her. Finally, he decided that it was God’s will that he should face the meaning of this vision.

Jung was overjoyed by his understanding of this vision. He believed that God had shown him that what mattered in life was doing God’s will, not following the rules of any man, religion, or church. This was what Jung felt his own father had never come to realize, and therefore, his father did not know the “immediate living God.” This conviction that one should pursue truth, rather than dogma, was an essential lesson that returned when Jung faced his dramatic split with Sigmund Freud.

When Jung decided to enter medical school, he did not leave his interest in strange spiritual matters behind. His cousin Helene Preiswerk led séances in which she would fall into a trance and channel strange spirits. The climax of these trances was often a mandala (a mandala is a geometric figure that represents wholeness, completeness, and perfection), which she would dictate to Jung, and then attempt to translate what was told to her by the spirits. Eugen Bleuler urged Jung to publish his studies on occult phenomena (remember that Bleuler defined schizophrenia), which Jung did, under the title On the Psychology and Pathology of So-called Occult Phenomena. Another important event that occurred early during Jung’s medical training was the death of his father. The church had no provisions for the family of a deceased minister, but one of his uncles loaned Jung the money he needed to continue his studies. Upon completing medical school, he joined Dr. Bleuler in Zurich at the Burgholzli Mental Hospital, and soon became the first assistant physician. The Burgholzli clinic was a renowned institution. Bleuler was considered one of the two most influential psychiatrists of the day, and the clinic had come to prominence under his predecessor Auguste Forel, who was the first person to formally publish the theory that neurons communicate through synaptic junctions (though just how was not well understood at the time Finger, 1994). Jung worked hard at Burgholzli, as Bleuler expected nothing less. He also spent some time in France, at the internationally recognized Salpetriere hospital, where he met Pierre Janet. Janet is a curious figure in the history of psychoanalysis. He claimed that he developed everything good in psychoanalysis, and that everything Freud developed was bad. Janet also apparently suggested that only the corrupt city of Vienna could be the source of a theory that traces the development of personality to sexual urges (Freud, 1914/1995). Jung spoke favorably of what he learned from Janet Freud soundly rejected Janet’s claims, but did grudgingly acknowledge that Janet did some important work on understanding neuroses (Freud, 1914/1995 Jung, 1961).

In 1906, Jung sent Freud a copy of his book The Psychology of Dementia Praecox (an earlier term for schizophrenia), which Freud found quite impressive. The two met in February of 1907, and talked for nearly 13 hours straight. According to Jung, “Freud was the first man of real importance I had encountered…no one else could compare with him.” Very quickly, Freud felt that Jung would become the leader of the psychoanalytic movement. In 1909, Jung’s psychoanalytic practice was so busy that he resigned from the Burgholzli clinic, and he traveled to America with Freud. During this trip, the two men spent a great deal of time together. It quickly became evident to Jung that he could not be the successor that Freud was seeking Jung had too many differences of opinion with Freud. More importantly, however, Jung described Freud as neurotic, and wrote that the symptoms were sometimes highly troublesome (though Jung failed to identify those symptoms).

Clearly Jung could not accept a dogmatic approach to psychoanalysis, since he believed that God Himself had told Jung not to follow any rigid system of rules. Even worse, this was when Jung first published his “discovery” of the collective unconscious. Freud wholly rejected this concept, and Jung felt that his creativity was being rejected. He offered to support Freud in public, while extending honest opinions in so-called “secret letters.” Freud wanted none of it. Almost as quickly as their relationship had grown, it fell apart (Jaffe, 1979 Jung, 1961 Wehr, 1989).

Image Source: Arturo Espinosa. (2012, June 28). Carl Jung for Pifal. Retrieved from Flickr at https://www.flickr.com/photos/espinosa_rosique/7460778064. Licensed under CC-BY-2.0.

The loss of his relationship with Freud, following the loss of his father, led Jung in a period of personal crisis. He resigned his position at the University of Zurich, and began a lengthy series of experiments in order to understand the fantasies and dreams that arose from his unconscious. The more he studied these phenomena, the more he realized they were not from his own memories, but from the collective unconscious. He was particularly curious about mandala drawings, which date back thousands of years in all cultures. He studied Christian Gnosticism, alchemy, and the I Ching (or: Book of Changes). After meeting Richard Wilhelm, an expert on Chinese culture, Jung studied more Taoist philosophy, and he wrote a glowing foreword for Wilhelm’s translation of the I Ching (Wilhelm, 1950). These extraordinarily diverse interests led Jung to seek more in-depth knowledge from around the world. He traveled first to North Africa, then to America (to visit Pueblo Indians in New Mexico), next came East Africa (Uganda and Kenya), and finally India. Jung made every effort to get away from civilized areas, which might have been influenced by other cultures, in order to get a more realistic impression of the local culture, and he was particularly successful in this regard in meeting gurus in India (Jaffe, 1979 Jung, 1961 Wehr, 1989).

Through it all, he continued his work in psychology. He had developed his concept of psychological types, one of his most significant contributions, and published his work shortly after the break with Freud. He continued to develop his own form of psychoanalysis. Jung’s family was also an important part of his life. He had married Emma Rauschenbach in 1903. They had four daughters and one son, followed by nineteen grandchildren and many great-grandchildren. Emma Jung was very supportive of her husband, especially during the more turbulent periods of his career (including the break with Freud), and she was no stranger to his work. She had done some analytical work with Freud herself, wrote essays on Jung’s concept of anima and animus, and she was the first president of the Psychological Club of Zurich. When his wife Emma died in 1955, Jung wrote in a letter that the loss had taken a lot out of him, and that at his age (80 years old) it wasn’t easy to recover. Yet two years later, he began dictating his autobiography to Aniela Jaffe.

Carl Jung died at home in 1961, in Kusnacht, Switzerland, at the age of 85. As psychologists today examine more deeply the relationship between Eastern and Western perspectives, it may be that Jung’s legacy has yet to be fulfilled.

Placing Jung in Context: A Psychodynamic Enigma

Carl Jung holds an extraordinary place in the histories of psychiatry and psychology. Having already been an assistant to the renowned psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler, he went to Vienna to learn more about the fledgling science of psychoanalysis. He became Freud’s hand-picked heir to the psychoanalytic throne, and was one of the psychiatrists who accompanied Freud to America. Later, however, as he developed his own theories, he parted ways with Freud. Freud eventually came to describe Jung’s theories as incomprehensible, and Freud praised other psychiatrists who also opposed Jung’s ideas.

The most dramatic contribution that Jung made to psychodynamic thought was his concept of the collective unconscious, a mysterious reservoir of psychological constructs common to all people. Jung traveled extensively, including trips to Africa, India, and the United States (particularly to visit the Pueblo Indians in New Mexico), and he studied the cultures in those places. He also observed many basic similarities between different cultures. Those similarities led Jung to propose the collective unconscious. How else could so many significant cultural similarities have arisen within separate and distant lands? Jung did not reject the concepts already developed by Freud and Adler, including the dynamic interaction between the conscious mind and the personal unconscious, but he extended them in order to connect them with his own theory of our underlying collective unconscious. As strange as this theory seemed to Freud, and Freud wondered whether it even made sense to Jung, such a concept is not difficult to understand from an Eastern perspective.

Initially, Jung’s theories had more influence on art, literature, and anthropology than they did on psychiatry and psychology. More recently, however, cognitive-behavioral theorists have begun to explore mindfulness as an addition to more traditional aspects of cognitive-behavioral therapies. As psychologists today study concepts from Yoga and Buddhism that are thousands of years old, Jung deserves the credit for bringing such an open-minded approach to the modern world of psychotherapy. Many famous and influential people admired Jung’s work, including psychiatrist Viktor Frankl, psychologist Erich Fromm, the authors Hermann Hesse and H. G. Wells, and Nobel Laureate (Physics) Wolfgang Pauli (for a number of interesting testimonials see Wehr, 1989). In addition, Jung’s discussion of how the libido has transformed throughout the evolution of the human species sounds very much like sociobiology, which was not an established field until the 1970s. Clearly Jung did not simply dabble in a wide range of ideas, but rather, he had an extraordinary vision of the complexity of the human psyche.

Supplemental Materials

This video [20:40] is a short documentary on Carl Jung from his childhood in Switzerland to his collaboration with Sigmund Freud and their eventual disagreements, to him publishing his ideas on the collective unconscious, archetypes and revolutionising the field of psychology.

In this video [12:54], Mike Rugnetta teaches you about Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, and how a lot of their work was influenced by myth and mythology. While Freud and Jung aren’t quite as revered as they once were, they were undoubtedly a huge influence on the practice of psychology and psychiatry, and these two fellas were undoubtedly influenced by foundational stories. Today, we’ll learn about Oedipus, the collective unconscious, archetypes, Star Wars, and more!

This video [4:02] presents an overview of Carl Jung’s theory of personality. Like Adler, Jung was a follower of Freud, and like Adler, Jung broke off and developed his own psychodynamic theory called Analytic Psychology. Jung’s contributions include archetypes, complexes, and the collective unconscious.

References

Text: Kelland, M. (2017). Personality Theory. OER Commons. Retrieved October 28, 2019, from https://www.oercommons.org/authoring/22859-personality-theory. Licensed under CC-BY-4.0.

The People Profiles. (2018, August 19). Carl Jung documentary- Biography of the life of Carl Jung. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MnDEU96SdQ8. Standard YouTube License.

CrashCourse. (2018, January 19). Freud, June, Luke Skywalker, and the psychology of myth: Crash course world mythology #40. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/PgsWcqATeLQ. Standard YouTube License.

Ken Tangen. (2010, February 17). If you know nothing about personality 05: Jung. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/PLNShGOgqWQ. Standard YouTube License.


Watch the video: Theories of Myth: Crash Course World Mythology #12 (November 2022).

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