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10 April 1944

10 April 1944


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10 April 1944

April 1944

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War at Sea

German submarine U-68 sunk off Medeira

Eastern Front

Soviet troops capture Odessa

War in the Air

Eighth Air Force attacks the German airfield at Bourges (first mission of the 467th Bombardment Group)



Commemoration of the RAF Spilsby Bomb Dump Explosion, April 10th 1944

As well as commemorating all those who served at the airfield, the Memorial* on the site of RAF Spilsby also carries an inscription referring to the accident in the bomb dump on Monday 10th April 1944 which claimed the lives of 10 airmen, of whom 3 have No Known Grave.

At that date 207 Squadron was the only Squadron in residence at the airfield. Those killed were all General Duties airmen undertaking duties as Armourers and Armourers Assistants.

All are included on the 207 Squadron Roll of Honour, as indeed are all groundcrew, both men and women, identified as having been killed whilst serving the Squadron.

* the 2001 memorial was replaced by a new memorial dedicated on 9th June 2012


Inscription on the obelisk of the original
memorial dedicated in 2001

Inscription on the new memorial dedicated in June 2012

The late Ken Smith was a Station Armourer, not a 207 Squadron Armourer. On one of his visits with his wife Barbara to Spilsby Ken said he was one of 30 Armourers posted to East Kirkby (then "parent" station when RAF Spilsby was being opened up) and who then came to Spilsby to get the bomb dump ready for operational use.

As well as being a very regular visitor to Meadowlands, Ken of course always made a point of being in Spilsby for the annual anniversary of the bomb dump explosion on the 10th April 1944. In his latter years he always placed a wreath on the memorial on the date and at the time of the explosion. As well as honouring colleagues killed whom he had known, there was also, it is believed, a very personal reason. On 10th April 1944 Ken should have been working in the bomb dump but instead was put on guard duty on the other side of the airfield, which is where he was at the time of the explosion. When returning after this duty was over Ken said he had met one of his NCOs, who went white and said to him that everyone had thought that he (Ken) was dead!


L: Kenny Smith RAFVR
above: on a visit to the site of the Bomb Dump

Some have expressed surprise that no NCO was among the casualties, since at least one should have been present in the Fusing Shed.

The late Wallace McIntosh DFC* DFM said he greatly respected Ken and his fellow armourers for the vital work that they did. “Remember too” he says “that when we returned from a raid they were up half the night clearing the aircraft and servicing the weapons.”

Those who died in the explosion were:-

AC1 John Richard Archer RAF(VR) Armourer, age 26
LAC Alfred Gallagher Barrett RAF(VR) Armourers Assistant, age 31
AC1 Walter Clews RAF(VR) Armourer, age 20
LAC Trevor Ewart Davidson RAF(VR) Armourers Assistant, age 37
AC1 Thomas Fleming RAF(VR) Armourers Assistant, age 20
AC1 Frank Haworth RAF(VR) Armourers Assistant, age 40
AC1 Idris Eufryl Jones RAF(VR) NKG Armourer, age 21
LAC Edward Thomas Rouillier RAF(VR) Armourers Assistant, age 24
AC2 Edward Rourke RAF(VR) NKG Armourers Assistant, age 23
AC1 Thomas Wright RAF(VR) NKG Armourers Assistant, age 37

6 were RAF Spilsby station airmen and 4 airmen serving on 207 Squadron.

In addition AC1 W Brent, AC2 F Walls, Cpl A Vigus, AC1 W Caldwell, LAC R Wylie, and Sgt KD Cooper of RAF Spilsby were injured.

In reference to the explosion, 207’s ORB (Operational Record Book) merely states: 㥹 aircraft detailed for operations. 11 took off to attack Tours and all returned to base. Explosion in bomb bay caused fatal injuries to 4 Squadron armourers and serious injuries to 1 man. Cause of accident under investigation.”

The RAF Spilsby ORB states:

“At 19:55hrs there was a terrific explosion, apparently in the vicinity of the bomb dump. The Station Commander, Fire Party and Medical Service proceeded to the scene of the incident and it was found that a 1,000 bomb, one of the bomb load of delayed action bombs which were to be used in operations that evening, had exploded.

It was nothing short of a miracle that the entire personnel working in the bomb dump at the time were not all killed as they were nearly all within a 20 yard radius of the scene of the incident. The injured personnel were rescued from the scene and conveyed to Station Sick Quarters under dangerous circumstances since there were 5-1,000 lb delayed action bombs in the vicinity of the fusing shed, and the risk was taken not knowing whether the bombs would explode prematurely or run their normal fuse delays. Fortunately they did not go off during the time rescue operations were being carried out.

The fire party were not permitted to deal with the camouflage netting which had caught fire, but were standing by at a safe distance until the danger period had passed. Two of the bombs exploded at approximately 04:30 hrs and two others at 06:30 hrs, which was the extent of their delay. One has not exploded at the extent of its delay”.

A Court of Enquiry to investigate the cause of the explosion was convened later in the day on 11th April, by which time the last bomb still had not exploded!

Any further information or other comments/recollections of the event would be most welcome. Please contact the editor.

Not all those present stepped up for the group photo: in all there were about 30 there, including Vera Willis, Fred & Renee Pearce and John Pearl.

Luke Smith again laid the wreath: his Dad and Grandmother Barbara and other members of the Smith family have been staying nearby on Meadowlands.

For the first time Spilsby RBL branch had 4 members there. The Spilsby Standard sent a photographer.

Rev Harry Orchard led the commemoration and spoke of his memories of the disaster.
He was a Flying Control Officer at the time.


Luke Smith, grandson of the late Ken Smith, Armourer 9/43-5/45


Luke Smith with wreath, in front of Mrs Barbara Smith and members of the Smith family:
also shown Rev Harry Orchard (Sqn Ldr RAF Retd),
Fred Pearce, John Pearl, Roger Aston, Vera Willis, Anne & John Frank of Meadowlands, and RBL members, among others.
Apart from the Smiths and those in italics, those named were serving at RAF Spilsby at the time -
Vera Willis was blown over by the explosion.


Explosion on cargo ship rocks Bombay, India

The cargo ship Fort Stikine explodes in a berth in the docks of Bombay, India (now known as Mumbai), killing 1,300 people and injuring another 3,000 on April 14, 1944. As it occurred during World War II, some initially claimed that the massive explosion was caused by Japanese sabotage in fact, it was a tragic accident.

The Fort Stikine was a Canadian-built steamship weighing 8,000 tons. It left Birkenhead, England, on February 24 and stopped in Karachi, Pakistan, before docking at Bombay. The ship was carrying hundreds of cotton bales, gold bullion and, most notably, 300 tons of trinitrotoluene, better known as TNT or dynamite. Inexplicably, the cotton was stored one level below the dynamite, despite the well-known fact that cotton bales were prone to combustion.

In the middle of loading, smoke was seen coming from the cotton bales and firefighters were sent to investigate. However, emergency measures, such as flooding that part of the ship, were not taken. Instead, about 60 firefighters tried to put out the fire with hoses throughout the afternoon. Unfortunately, the TNT was not unloaded during the firefighting efforts.

Eventually, the firefighters were ordered off the ship but kept dousing the fire from the docks. Their efforts were in vain the TNT was ignited, and at 4:07 p.m., the resulting explosion rocked the bay area. The force of the blast actually lifted a nearby 4,000-ton ship from the bay onto land. Windows a mile away were shattered. A 28-pound gold bar from the Fort Stikine, worth many thousands of dollars, was found a mile away. Everyone in close vicinity of the ship was killed.

Twelve other ships at the docks were destroyed and many more were seriously damaged. Fires broke out all over the port, causing further explosions. Military troops were brought in to fight the raging fires and some buildings were demolished to stop it from spreading. The main business center of Bombay was not safe for three days after the explosion.


Croatia declares independence

On April 10, 1941, the German and Italian invaders of Yugoslavia set up the Independent State of Croatia (also including Bosnia and Herzegovina) and place nationalist leader Ante Pavelic’s Ustase, pro-fascist insurgents, in control of what is no more than a puppet Axis regime.

The Ustase began a relentless persecution of Serbs, Jews, Gypsies and antifascist Croats. As many as 350,000 to 450,000 victims were massacred, and the Jasenovac concentration camp would become infamous as a slaughterhouse.

Croatia’s Serbs gave sporadic resistance, but it was the communist partisans, led by Josip Broz Tito (a Croat himself), who provided antifascist leadership. By 1944, most of Croatia𠅊part from the main cities—was liberated from Axis forces, and Croats joined partisan ranks in large numbers. As the war neared its end, however, many Croats, especially those who had been involved with the Ustase regime or who had opposed the communists, sought refugee status with the Allies. But British commanders handed them over to the partisans, who slaughtered tens of thousands, including civilians, on forced marches and in death camps.


1. Hitching a ride

From left to right: Captain Walker L Boone Flight Officer Manuel S Martinez and Flight Officer Jerry E Brasher, pilots of the 82nd Fighter Squadron, 78th Fighter Group, sit on the bonnet of a Dodge WC (weapons carrier) at Duxford air base in October 1943. Duxford's control tower can be seen in the background. Fighter pilots flew escort missions to protect the bombers from enemy aircraft. Flying on 11 February 1944, they received word that a lone B-17 Flying Fortress had fallen behind its formation and was under attack. Jerry E Brasher was part of the flight that responded. He reported bringing down one of the German Me 109s seeking out the stranded bomber: 'Using water injection I gained on him, firing all the time, seeing strikes at the wing roots and behind the cockpit. The enemy aircraft lost speed and chandelled up to the left. I followed firing intermittently and saw him jettison his canopy. I fired another burst and he rolled over on his back at about 1,000 feet. I was about 800 yards behind at this time. I continued my turn and saw him floating down in a parachute and his ship hit and burn in a wooded section. I climbed back to 18,000 feet with my wingman and proceeded home.'


Major King Events Chronology: 1929-1968

Michael King, later known as Martin Luther King, Jr., is born at 501 Auburn Ave. in Atlanta, Georgia.

Summer

The King family -- Martin Luther King, Sr. (Daddy King), Alberta Williams King, Willie Christine King, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Alfred Daniel Williams King (known as A. D. King) -- moves from 501 Auburn Avenue to 193 Boulevard in Atlanta.

20 September

King begins his freshman year at Morehouse College in Atlanta.

6 August

The Atlanta Constitution publishes King’s letter to the editor stating that black people "are entitled to the basic rights and opportunities of American citizens."

25 February

King is ordained and appointed assistant pastor at Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta.

8 June

King receives his bachelor of arts degree in sociology from Morehouse College.

14 September

King begins his studies at Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania.

6-8 May

King graduates from Crozer with a bachelor of divinity degree, delivering the valedictory address at commencement.

13 September

King begins his graduate studies in systematic theology at Boston University.

18 June

King and Coretta Scott are married at the Scott home near Marion, Alabama.

1 September

King begins his pastorate at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama.

5 June

King is awarded his doctorate in systematic theology from Boston University.

17 November

Yolanda Denise King, the Kings’ first child, is born.

1 December

Rosa Parks is arrested for refusing to vacate her seat and move to the rear of a city bus in Montgomery to make way for a white passenger. Jo Ann Robinson and other Women’s Political Council members mimeograph thousands of leaflets calling for a one-day boycott of the city’s buses on Monday, 5 December.

5 December

At a mass meeting at Holt Street Baptist Church, the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) is formed. King becomes its president.

27 January

According to King’s later account in Stride Toward Freedom, he receives a threatening phone call late in the evening, prompting a spiritual revelation that fills him with strength to carry on in spite of persecution.

30 January

At 9:15 p.m., while King speaks at a mass meeting, his home is bombed. His wife and daughter are not injured. Later King addresses an angry crowd that gathers outside the house, pleading for nonviolence.

13 November

The U.S. Supreme Court affirms the lower court opinion in Browder v. Gayle declaring Montgomery and Alabama bus segregation laws unconstitutional.

21 December

Montgomery City Lines resumes full service on all routes. King is among the first passengers to ride the buses in an integrated fashion.

10-11 January

Southern black ministers meet in Atlanta to share strategies in the fight against segregation. King is named chairman of the Southern Negro Leaders Conference on Transportation and Nonviolent Integration (later known as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, SCLC).

18 February

King appears on the cover of Time magazine.

6 March

King attends the independence celebrations of the new nation of Ghana in West Africa and meets with Prime Minister Kwame Nkrumah.

17 May

At the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., King delivers his first national address, "Give Us The Ballot," at the Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom.

13 June

King and Ralph D. Abernathy meet with Vice President Richard M. Nixon and issue a statement on their meeting.

23 October

Coretta King gives birth to their second child, Martin, III.

23 June

King and other civil rights leaders meet with President Dwight D. Eisenhower in Washington.

17 September

20 September

During a book signing at Blumstein’s Department Store in Harlem, New York, King is stabbed by Izola Ware Curry. He is rushed to Harlem Hospital where a team of doctors successfully remove a seven-inch letter opener from his chest.

3 February

King embarks on a month-long visit to India where he meets with Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and many of Gandhi’s followers.

1 February

King moves from Montgomery to Atlanta to devote more time to SCLC and the freedom struggle. He becomes assistant pastor to his father at Ebenezer Baptist Church.

25-28 May

King is found not guilty of tax fraud by a white jury in Montgomery.

23 June

King meets privately in New York with Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy.

19 October

King is arrested during a sit-in demonstration at Rich’s department store in Atlanta. He is sentenced to four months hard labor for violating probation conditions he had received earlier that year for driving with a out of state drivers license . He is released on $2000 bond on 27 October.

31 January

Dexter Scott, King’s third child, is born.

21 May

After the initial group of Freedom Riders seeking to integrate bus terminals are assaulted in Alabama, King addresses a mass rally at a mob-besieged Montgomery church.

16 October

King meets with President John F. Kennedy and urges him to issue a second Emancipation Proclamation to eliminate racial segregation.

16 December

King, Ralph Abernathy, Albany Movement president William G. Anderson, and other protesters are arrested by Laurie Pritchett during a campaign in Albany, Georgia.

27 July-10 August

King is arrested at an Albany, Georgia prayer vigil and jailed. After spending two weeks in jail, King is released.

28 September

28 March

Bernice Albertine, King’s fourth child, is born.

16 April

Responding to eight Jewish and Christian clergymen’s advice that African Americans wait patiently for justice, King pens his "Letter from Birmingham Jail." King and Abernathy were arrested on 12 April and released on 19 April.

7 May

Conflict in Birmingham reaches its peak when high-pressure fire hoses force demonstrators from the business district. In addition to hoses, Police Commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor employs dogs, clubs, and cattle prods to disperse four thousand demonstrators in downtown Birmingham.

5 June

28 August

The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom attracts more than two hundred thousand demonstrators to the Lincoln Memorial. Organized by A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin, the march is supported by all major civil rights organizations as well as by many labor and religious groups. King delivers his "I Have a Dream" speech. After the march, King and other civil rights leaders meet with President John F. Kennedy and Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson in the White House.

18 September

10 October

U.S. Attorney General Robert Kennedy authorizes the FBI to wiretap King’s home phone.

3 January

King is named "Man of the Year" by Time Magazine.

18 January

9 February

26 March

King meets Malcolm X in Washington, D.C. for the first and only time.

11 June

King is arrested and jailed for demanding service at a white-only restaurant in St. Augustine, Florida.

20 July

18 November

After King criticizes the FBI’s failure to protect civil rights workers, the agency’s director J. Edgar Hoover denounces King as "the most notorious liar in the country." A week later he states that SCLC is "spearheaded by Communists and moral degenerates."

1 December

King meets with FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover at the Justice Department.

10 December

King receives the Nobel Peace Prize at a ceremony in Oslo, Norway. He declares that "every penny" of the $54,000 award will be used in the ongoing civil rights struggle.

The King family moves to their new home at 234 Sunset Avenue in Atlanta.

7 March

In an event that will become known as "Bloody Sunday," voting rights marchers are beaten at the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama as they attempt to march to Montgomery.

17-25 March

King, James Forman, and John Lewis lead civil rights marchers from Selma to Montgomery after a U.S. District judge upholds the right of demonstrators to conduct an orderly march.

12 August

King publicly opposes the Vietnam War at a mass rally at the Ninth Annual Convention of SCLC in Birmingham.

26 January

King and his wife move into an apartment at 1550 South Hamlin Avenue in Chicago to draw attention to the city's poor housing conditions.

23 February

In Chicago, King meets Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad.

7 June

King, Floyd McKissick of CORE, and Stokely Carmichael of SNCC resume James Meredith’s "March Against Fear" from Memphis to Jackson, Mississippi, after Meredith was shot and wounded near Memphis.

4 April

King delivers "Beyond Vietnam" to a gathering of Clergy and Laymen Concerned About Vietnam at Riverside Church in New York City. He demands that the U.S. take new initiatives to end the war.

4 December

28 March

King leads a march of six thousand protesters in support of striking sanitation workers in Memphis. The march descends into violence and looting, and King is rushed from the scene.

3 April

King returns to Memphis, determined to lead a peaceful march. During an evening rally at Mason Temple in Memphis, King delivers his final speech, "I’ve Been to the Mountaintop."

4 April

King is shot and killed while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis.


Essays in the History of Medicine Presented to Professor Arturo Castiglioni on the Occasion of His Seventieth Birthday, April 10, 1944

of any age, including those who seek affection for the one to be honored, many who might otherwise not do so to counsel others. This is a " guide-book " rather than are led to write often quite important a textbook, though it is organized in essays. This volume dedicated to Protext-book style. There are four parts. *fessor Castiglioni is no exception. The Part I, Personal Development in Rela- man himself has had many contacts tion to Marriage, tries for a better with medicine and public health, the understanding of self through study of arts, science, and once even edited a human beings in general. Part II, The daily newspaper. His comprehensive Immediate Prelude to Marriage, deals history of medicine, written in his native with dating and courtship, mate selec- Italian tongue and translated in four tion, and marriage plans. Part III, others (including English, 1941), is Evolving a Satisfactory Family Life, known to many historians of medicine. occupies eight of the volume's nineteen One hundred and sixty-three titles are chapters, ranging through the crucial listed in his bibliography. In his home" first year " of marriage, in-law rela- land he was head of the Sanitary Service tionships,

Journal

American Journal of Public Health &ndash American Public Health Association


10 April 1944 - History

How do recent winters stack up against the worst snowstorms in Philadelphia history?

Here's a list of the 10 worst snowstorms in the City of Brotherly Love. Each snowfall total includes at least two days, and the highest one-day total (if the data were available):

1. 31 inches, Jan. 6-8, 1996 (27.6 inches on Jan. 7).

2. 28.5 inches, Feb. 5-6, 2010 (21.9 inches on Feb. 6).

3. 23.2 inches, Dec. 19-20, 2009 (22.5 inches on Dec. 19).

4. 22.4 inches, Jan. 23-24, 2016.

5. 21.3 inches, Feb. 11-12, 1983 (21.1 inches on Feb. 11).

6. 21 inches, Dec. 25-26, 1909 (15.5 inches on Dec. 26).

7. 19.4 inches, April 3-4, 1915 (19.0 inches on April 3).

8. 18.9 inches, Feb. 12-14, 1899.

9. 18.7 inches, Feb. 16-17, 2003 (16.0 on Feb. 16). Area high: 24.5 inches in city's Byberry section.


10th Mountain Division Resource Center

The 10th Mountain Division—a full division of the United States Army specializing in mountain and winter warfare—trained at Camp Hale, Colorado during World War II. Experienced in skiing, mountaineering and cold-weather survival as well as military tactics, the soldiers fought enemy forces in the Italian Campaign of 1945. Dubbed the "ski troops" by the press, the 10th Mountain Division remains the only military division recruited by a civilian organization, the National Ski Patrol. Many 10th Mountain Division veterans contributed greatly to the development of the recreational ski industry in the United States and to the growth of related fields such as outdoor equipment, recreation and nature conservation.

In 1987, Denver Public Library partnered with History Colorado and the National Association of the 10th Mountain Division to create the 10th Mountain Division Resource Center. The Resource Center is the official repository for all records and artifacts related to the World War II-era 10th Mountain Division. The collection at Denver Public Library includes:


World War II in Color: The Italian Campaign and the Road to Rome

American jeeps traveled through a bombed-out town during the drive towards Rome, World War II.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Written By: Ben Cosgrove

Ask a dozen military historians to name the single most pivotal battle or campaign of World War II the one operation that saw the war’s momentum irrevocably swing from the Axis to the Allied powers and you’ll get a dozen answers. Did the pendulum shift as early as the Battle of Britain? At Midway? During the liberation of Paris? Kursk? The Battle of the Bulge? Stalingrad? A definitive answer is impossible.

But one campaign that everyone agrees was a significant turning point in the Allied effort was launched in July 1943. Before dawn on July 10 of that year, 150,000 American and British troops along with Canadian, Free French and other Allies, and 3,000 ships, 600 tanks and 4,000 aircraft made for the southern shores of the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea: the storied, 10,000-square-mile land of Sicily. Within six weeks, the Allies had pushed Axis troops (primarily Germans) out of Sicily and were poised for the invasion of mainland Italy and one of the most arduous 20 months of the entire war: the long, often brutal Italian Campaign.

Tens of thousands of troops, on both sides, were killed or listed as missing, while hundreds of thousands more were wounded. And, of course as in most every major campaign of the war hundreds of thousands of civilians were killed, while countless more were wounded, raped, left homeless and otherwise traumatized.

Here, LIFE.com presents a series of both rare and classic color pictures made throughout the Italian Campaign by the great Carl Mydans.

Finally, it’s worth noting that, within weeks of the start of the invasion of Sicily, the Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, who had ruled Italy for more than two decades, was booted from power and arrested. “Il Duce” subsequently escaped, with German help, and was then on the run or in hiding without cease for almost two years. He was captured by Italian partisans in late April 1945, summarily executed, and along with his mistress and several other Fascists literally hanged by his heels, in public, for all to see.

In early May 1945, the war in Europe ended.

American jeeps traveled through a bombed-out town during the drive towards Rome, World War II.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

American armor moved up the Appian Way during the drive towards Rome.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

American soldiers marched up the Appian Way during the drive towards Rome in World War II.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Italians watched American armor pass during the drive towards Rome along the Appian Way, World War II.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

A column of American medical vehicles during the drive towards Rome, World War II.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

American soldiers rested in a courtyard during the drive towards Rome, World War II.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

American troops stood in front of a bombed-out building during the drive towards Rome, WWII.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Ruins of the town of Monte Cassino, a result of massive Allied bombing during an attempt to dislodge German troops occupying the city, 1944.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Ruins in the Rapido Valley, 1944.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

A German graveyard along the Esperia Road, photographed during the Allied drive towards Rome, World War II.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Troops in the Liri Valley, on the road to Rome, Italian Campaign, 1944.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

An American soldier tried to spot German positions during the Allied drive towards Rome, 1944.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Liri Valley, on the road to Rome, 1944.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

American troops camped by the roadside during the drive towards Rome, 1944.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

An American soldier slept on a pile of rocks during the drive towards Rome, 1944.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Liri Valley, on the road to Rome, 1944.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

In the Rapido Valley, 1944.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

American troops rested in a field during the drive towards Rome, 1944.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

An American soldier took a meal break during the drive towards Rome, 1944.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

American troops looked over German armor destroyed during the drive towards Rome, 1944.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

The Italian Campaign, World War II, 1944.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

British and South African soldiers held up a Nazi trophy flag while combat engineers on bulldozers cleared a path through the debris of a bombed-out city, Italian Campaign, World War II.

Carl Mydans/Life Pictures/Shutterstock


Watch the video: Eastern Front of WWII animated: 19441945 (February 2023).

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