Which language is oldest in India?

Which language is oldest in India?

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Which language is oldest in India?

Some of the oldest known languages in the Indian Subcontinent were Pali, Sanskrit, Brahmi, Prakrit. Prakrit definitely predates Sanskrit, but Sanskrit was popularized as a "marga" or "higher" language by the monarchs at a certain point after the "Aryan" influence. Several scripts too were known, such as Kharoshti, derived from Aramaic. The Indus Valley "script" has not been deciphered. None of the older languages are in use today.

Regional languages as we know them today were later developments- some well into the 11th century CE. These languages were derived from both the Sanskrit as well as Dravidic roots. Tamil, Kannada, Telugu show greater Dravidic roots than say Hindi, Bengali, or Oriya, which show greater Sanskritic influence.

Sanskrit, however, is still studied by many for academic and religious reasons. By inference, smaller groups of specialists also study the other archaic languages. But these are not in use even to the extent that Sanskrit is.

The division of states on the basis of language is a post-independance phenomenon, and has been cobbled together from many kingdoms, princely states, British Presidencies and other non-linguistic political divisions.

While it has been criticized by many as "divisive", others have hailed it as a successful experiment.

Seven oldest languages in the world that are still in use

There was a time when human beings used to communicate via gestures and primitive oral sounds. The concept of structured language came into existence around 10,000 years ago via scriptures. The origin of first-ever language is highly debated as there are several media of communication that can be attributed as language. However, linguists have studied thousands of languages and have come to a conclusion that the age of a language should be calculated by its first appearance in texts and its contemporary use.

Heeding to this, we bring you seven of the oldest languages in the world that are still widely in use:

Tamil: Origin (according to first appearance as script) - 300 BC

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The earliest example of the language can be traced back to 300 BC, but its origin is believed to be during 2500 BC or so. In today's world, around 78 million people in the world speak Tamil. It is this fact of contemporary utility that makes Tamil the longest surviving language in the world

Sanskrit: Origin (according to first appearance as script) - 2000 BC

Image source: ZetaBoards

Considered to be the 'language of the Gods', Sanskrit is the ancient language of India. The earliest example of this language can be found in the second millennium BC. The language is still spoken by small group of people. The influence of Sanskrit on several western languages is known to all. The basic language of computers were also constructed along the principles of Sanskrit

Greek: Origin (according to first appearance as script) - 1500 BC


Once upon a time all prominent philosophers and scholars of the world used to think, speak and write Greek. The language dates back to around 1500 BC. At present, around 13 million people living in Greece and Cyprus. It is also recognized as an official language by the European Union

Chinese: Origin (according to first appearance as script) - 1250 BC


Chinese is the first language for the most number of people in the world. Around 1.2 billion people consider Chinese to be their first language. The origin of the language has been traced back to 1250 BC in the late Shang dynasty. Along with Tamil, Chinese is one of the oldest surviving languages in the world that has this much contemporary value

Hebrew: Origin (according to first appearance as script) - 1000 BC

Image source:Bible History Online

It is believed by many that Hebrew has been used for the last 5000 years. However, the earliest example of Hebrew has been found around 1000 BC. The language ceased to be a spoken tongue from 200 CE to 400 CE. At present, around 9 million people speak Hebrew across the world

Latin: Origin (according to first appearance as script) - 75 BC

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Latin is one of the oldest classical languages that have survived through the winds of time. Like Sanskrit, Latin has also influenced numerous languages over the course of time. The earliest appearance of this language can be traced back to the days of the Roman Empire, which was formed around 75 BC. Latin is still the official language of Poland and the Vatican City and is still learned by millions around the world.

Arabic: Origin (according to first appearance as script) - 512 CE

Image source: Arabetics

At present, around 290 million people consider Arabic as their first language. The earliest example of Arabic inscription dates back to 512 CE. Middle-East countries like UAE, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman and others use Arabic for official documents and consider it as their native language.


Sanskrit is one of the oldest known languages over thousands of years. It is also called "Dev Vani" (the language of gods) as it is said that Brahma introduced this language to the Sages of celestial bodies. It is believed that the Sanskrit language came from Indo-European language family of Indian subcontinent. It was only in the 18 th century, a similarity between Sanskrit, Latin and Greek was found which made the think tanks of the world to study and discover the relationship of all Indo-European languages. Enough evidence is yet to be gathered to accept Indian origin of Sanskrit language.

10 Oldest Written Languages in The World (Updated 2021)

Humans have been keeping records for several millennia as evidenced by some of the oldest cave paintings in the world and other ancient artifacts. However, the first true writing systems emerged with the first modern civilizations over 5,000 years ago. These early writing systems influenced later written scripts. Some modern written languages can even trace their roots all the way back to these early texts. Most of the written languages on this list have been deciphered, while others are still largely a mystery.

Please note that we chose to exclude any proto-writing systems or supposed writing systems that have been called into question and may not even be true written languages, like the Indus script or the Vinča symbols. While these symbols date to much earlier than the written languages on this list, no one knows for sure if these actually represented any form of structural writing, so they have been omitted.

10. Oracle Bone Script

Year Created or Date of Earliest Known Text: c.1250 (but most likely much earlier)
Used By (Languages): Archaic Chinese
Time Period: Bronze Age China
Type: Logographic
Direction: Top to bottom

photo source: Wikimedia Commons via BabelStone

The oracle bone script is one of the oldest writing systems that is directly related to a modern written language. Dating back to around 1250 BCE – but most likely was first used much earlier – oracle bone script represented Archaic Chinese, which is the oldest attested stage of the Chinese language.

As its name suggests, oracle bone script is found on oracle bones (animal bones or turtle plastrons used in divination). Most of the known examples of oracle bone script were discovered at the Yinxu archaeological site (modern-day Anyang, Henan Province). The texts are pyromantic divinations from the last nine kings of the Shang Dynasty. By around the 1 st millennium BCE, oracle bone script became less common.

Did You Know?

While oracle bone script is the earliest known form of Chinese writing, historians believe that there was a writing system before oracle bone script because its a well-developed system. However, no texts from before the Shang Dynasty have been found.

9. Luwian Hieroglyphs

Year Created or Date of Earliest Known Text: c.1400 BCE
Used By (Languages): Luwian
Time Period: c.1400 BCE to 700 BCE
Type: Logographic
Direction: Variable

photo source: Wikimedia Commons via Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg)

Luwian hieroglyphs were used in Bronze Age Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) and was related to the Hittite language and script. While Hittite was based on Akkadian cuneiform, Luwian was an indigenous writing system developed for the Luwian language.

When it was first discovered, Hieroglyphic Luwian was called Hieroglyphic Hittite because the first tablets were found in the archives of the Hittitle capital of Hattusa (modern Boğazköy). After the tablets were deciphered, it was determined that the script represented Luwian and not Hittite. The Luwians were part of a separate kingdom that neighbored the Hittite Empire. The Hittites used both their own cuneiform as well as the Luwian hieroglyphs.

Did You Know?

After the fall of the Hittite Empire, no evidence of Luwian existed for two hundred years, but Luwian hieroglyphs were revived and used by the rulers of Neo-Hittite city-states in southern Anatolia and what is now northern Syria.

8. Linear B

Year Created or Date of Earliest Known Text: c.1500 BCE
Used By (Languages): Mycenaean Greeks
Time Period: c.1500 to 1200 BCE
Type: Syllabic
Direction: Variable

photo source: Wikimedia Commons via vintagedept

Linear B is one of the oldest surviving Greek writing systems and was used by the Mycenaean Greeks from 1500 to 1200 BCE. Although Linear B tablets were discovered in the early 20 th century, the texts were not deciphered until the early 1950s. Michael Ventris, an architect interested in linguistics, and John Chadwork discovered that Linear B represented an archaic Greek language.

Many common Greek sounds are missing from the Linear B, but modern scholars eventually worked out how the writing system worked by studying later Greek dialects. They discovered that instead of using different symbols for each sound, similar sounds were represented by one symbol.

Did You Know?

The known Linear B tablets are mostly just old accounting records of lists of materials and goods.

7. Hittite Cuneiform

Year Created or Date of Earliest Known Text: c.1700 BCE
Used By (Languages): Hittites
Time Period: c.1700 to 1100 BCE
Type: Logophoentic
Direction: Variable

photo source: Wikimedia Commons via Mr. Granger

Hittite cuneiform was used by the Hittites who lived in ancient Anatolia (part of modern-day Turkey). Like several peoples before them, the Hittites adopted Akkadian cuneiform, who borrowed the cuneiform writing system from the Sumerians. The Hittites borrowed about 375 signs from Akkadian cuneiform.

The Hittite Empire lasted until the 12 th century BCE and Hittite cuneiform went extinct when the empire did. The descendants of the Hittite aristocracy stopped using Hittite cuneiform, and used the related Luwian hieroglyphs instead.

Did You Know?

The study of Hittite cuneiform and the closely related Luwian language helped modern linguists understand Proto-Indo-European, the supposed mother tongue of all Indo-European languages.

6. Linear A

Year Created or Date of Earliest Known Text: c.1800 BCE
Used By (Languages): Minoans (people of Crete)
Time Period: c.1800 to 1400 BCE
Type: Undeciphered, believed to be ideographic and syllabic
Direction: Variable

photo source: Wikimedia Commons via Zde

Linear A is one of two undeciphered writing systems used by the Minoans of Crete from 1800 to 1400 BCE. Along with Cretan hieroglyphs, Linear A is one of the first European writing systems. Since not much is known about either Linear A or Cretan hieroglyphs, they could have been part of the same writing system even though the scripts look very different.

In addition to being possibly related to Cretan hieroglyphs, Linear A looks similar to Linear B, which was used by the Mycenaean Greeks. However, after comparing both languages, linguists concluded that Linear A does not represent a known Greek language.

Did You Know?

Linear A consists of about 90 different symbols.

5. Cretan Hieroglyphs

Year Created or Date of Earliest Known Text: c.2100
Used By (Languages): Minoans (people of Crete)
Time Period: c.2100 to 1700 BCE
Type: Undeciphered, believed to be ideographic with a syllabic component
Direction: Variable

photo source: Wikimedia Commons via Ingo Pini

Cretan hieroglyphs was the earliest writing system used by the Minoans, who are considered the first literate culture of Europe. Not much is known about Cretan hieroglyphs and the language has not been deciphered although its been extensively studied. The reason Cretan hieroglyphs have not been translated is because the few known examples of the text are very short.

Cretan hieroglyphs most often appeared on clay seals, which most likely showed the names of the people who owned the objects that the seals are on. Most of the known Cretan hieroglyphs appear to be pictographic and ornamental, but a few examples contain more linear text – this has only added to the difficulty of deciphering Cretan hieroglyphs.

Did You Know?

In addition to being undeciphered, it is not known what spoken language Cretan hieroglyphs represented.

4. Elamite Cuneiform

Year Created or Date of Earliest Known Text: c.2200 BCE
Used By (Languages): Elamites
Time Period: c.2200 BCE to 400 BCE
Type: Syllabary
Direction: Left to right

photo source: Wikimedia Commons via Rama

Elamite cuneiform was directly influenced by Akkadian cuneiform, but was not as complex and used less symbols. There are two variants of Elamaite cuneiform, the one derived from Akkadian, which was used from the 3 rd to 2 nd millennia BCE and the simplified form used in the 1 st millennium BCE.

Both variations of Elamite cuneiform are similar, but the simplified form used fewer scripts. Compared to Akkadian cuneiform, which had hundreds of different symbols, Elamite cuneiform only had about 130 to 206 different signs. The most famous Elamite tablets are from the Achaemenid Persian kings, which were from the late 1 st millennium BCE and were written in three languages: Old Persian, Babylonian, and Elamite. These tablets were used to decipher Elamite cuneiform.

Did You Know?

There are about 20,000 known Elamite tablets and fragments and they are primarily economic records.

3. Akkadian Cuneiform

Year Created or Date of Earliest Known Text: c.2500 BCE
Used By (Languages): Akkadians
Time Period: c.2500 BCE to 100 CE
Type: Syllabic and logographic
Direction: Left to right

photo source: Wikimedia Commons via Louvre Museum

While Sumerian and Akkadian were two very different languages, the Akkadians, who lived north of the Sumerians, adopted the cuneiform writing system and eventually transformed it. The Akkadians started using cuneiform around 2500 BCE and continued using the writing system for the next several centuries.

The Akkadians simplified the Sumerian cuneiform pictographs and tried their best to adapt cuneiform to their Semitic language. There are between 700 to 800 symbols in Akkadian cuneiform, but only about 200 to 400 were commonly used.

Did You Know?

Akkadian eventually became the dominant language in ancient Mesopotamia (starting around 2300 BCE) and later became the Babylonian and Assyrian languages.

2. Egyptian Hieroglyphs

Year Created or Date of Earliest Known Text: c.3200 BCE
Used By (Languages): Ancient Egyptians
Time Period: c.3200 BCE to 400 CE
Type: Syllabic and logography usable as an abjad
Direction: Left to right

photo source: Flickr via Arild Finne Nybø

Of all the earliest writing systems, none are more popular or as elegant as Egyptian hieroglyphs. In fact, the Greeks thought the Egyptian symbols were so beautiful and sacred that they called them “holy writing” or hieroglyphs, from the Greek hiero ‘holy’ and glypho ‘writing.’ The Ancient Egyptians also believed that their writing were invented by the gods and called it medu netjer (‘the gods’ words’).

While no one knows for sure when the Egyptians first started using hieroglyphs, the oldest definitively dated example comes from around 3200 BCE. Like many ancient written languages, people forgot how to read hieroglyphs for several centuries after it fell out of use. Egyptian hieroglyphs were not translated until the 1820s by Jean-François Champollion, with the help of the famous Rosetta Stone.

Did You Know?

Although Egyptian hieroglyphs are pictures, each symbol actually represents a consonant, this is known as an abjad writing system.

1. Cuneiform

Year Created or Date of Earliest Known Text: c.3200 BCE
Used By (Languages): Sumerians and Akkadians
Time Period: c.31st century BCE to 1st century CE
Type: Logographic and syllabic
Direction: Left to right

photo source: Wikimedia Commons via Gavin Collins

While there were a few proto-writing systems that mainly used symbols that are older, Cuneiform is widely accepted as the oldest written language in the world. Cuneiform was first developed by one of the world’s first modern civilizations, the Sumerians from southern Mesopotamia, around 3200 BCE.

Use of Cuneiform lasted for over 3,000 years and inspired many early writing systems in other parts of Mesopotamia. Eventually, Cuneiform was replaced by the Phoenician alphabet and it went extinct around the 1 st century CE. For many centuries after this, no one knew how to read Cuneiform. The language was finally slowly pieced together by deciphering repetitive words (like “king”) in Persian during the 19 th century.

Did You Know?

Thousands of Cuneiform tablets have been discovered and they contain some of the world’s oldest laws, recipes, and personal and business letters, including the oldest customer complaint.

Sanskrit or tamil, which one is oldest Language?

the people who Migrated from Africa were just Australoid with no culture or language. they were mostly Tribal people.

This guy is a Dravidian from IVC

This girl is Australoid from IVC

most of Dravidians who migrated to south give their Language and Culture to Australoids and Mixed with them. but as you can see, they were minority (most likely) 1% of South Asia before they got Extincted.

basically, we can say that west Asians Civilized people of South India because before Dravidians in small Group migrated to south India (sea if Australoid people) there were no native Culture there.

we can see same pattern in Indo-Aryan Migration (Brahmins,Kshatriya)to South India.

but this time, Dravidian language was already there (thanks to west Asian Dravidians) so native people(Australoids) accepted Sanskrit Influence (loanwords) in their Adopted Languages.

@Copperknickers @Aatreya @Bhrigu


not Dravidians, Australoid. Dravidians were West Asian Caucasoid people who migrated to India.

the people who Migrated from Africa were just Australoid with no culture or language. they were mostly Tribal people.

This guy is a Dravidian from IVC

This girl is Australoid from IVC

most of Dravidians who migrated to south give their Language and Culture to Australoids and Mixed with them. but as you can see, they were minority mostly 1% of South Asia before they got Extincted.

basically, we can say that west Asians Civilized people of South India.

@Copperknickers @Aatreya @Bhrigu

Please do not count me among those who believe that the Indians got civilization from middle east. I firmly believe in indigenous civilization of India, and the Out of India theory.

My belief is that the North Indian and South Indian languages are developments of a proto Indian language, which could have Vedic Chandas as one of its flavors.

I have zero regards for AIT/AMT, and the existing proto-Indo-European theory. AIT/AMT is the mother of all unwanted complexes that Indians have, and is the most phony theory that I have come across.

Aham Brahmasmi

Indian civilization is Indian how it can be Middle Eastern ?


Please do not count me among those who believe that the Indians got civilization from middle east. I firmly believe in indigenous civilization of India, and the Out of India theory.

My belief is that the North Indian and South Indian languages are developments of a proto Indian language, which could have Vedic Chandas as one of its flavors.

I have zero regards for AIT/AMT, and the existing proto-Indo-European theory. AIT/AMT is the mother of all unwanted complexes that Indians have, and is the most phony theory that I have come across.


not Dravidians, Australoid. Dravidians were West Asian Caucasoid people who migrated to India.

the people who Migrated from Africa were just Australoid with no culture or language. they were mostly Tribal people.

Obviously Australoids had a culture and language, all humans have culture and language. We just don't know anything about them because they were illiterate.

India Culture

Religion in India

About 80% Hindu, 14% Muslim, with Sikh, Christian, Jain, Parsi and Buddhist minorities.

Social Conventions in India

The traditional Hindu greeting is to fold the hands, tilt the head forward and say Namaste. Indian women generally prefer not to shake hands. All visitors are asked to remove footwear when entering places of religious worship. Most Indians also remove their footwear when entering their homes visitors should follow suit. Many Hindus are vegetarian and many, especially women, do not drink alcohol. Most Sikhs and Parsis do not smoke. Women are expected to dress modestly and men should also dress respectfully. Women should not wear short skirts and tight or revealing clothing, although there is a more casual approach to clothing in Goa.

Ancient Language in India

The earliest form of Sanskrit is found in the Rig Veda. After the Rig Veda was composed, Sanskrit language developed rapidly. The grammar became considerably simplified though still remaining complex. When the need was felt for proper pronunciation and understanding of the meaning of the older Vedic texts particularly at a time when many new words were introduced from non-Aryan sources, India developed the science of phonetics and grammar. There was also a belief that unless the Vedic texts were recited very accurately, it would bring misfortune to the reader.

Panini's great grammar the Ashtadhyayi was most probably composed towards the 4th century BC. It may be stated that with Panini the language attained its highest state of development and thereafter there was improvement only in its vocabulary. Side by side the sounds of Sanskrit were analysed with remarkable accuracy. The vowels and the consonants were all classified in a very scientific manner according to their mode of production. Panini's grammar may be justly described as one of the grandest achievements of any civilization. Panini had formulated some 4000 grammatical rules. Later Indian grammar texts could only be commentaries on the matchless work of Panini. Sanskrit spread to other parts of the country including countries like Cambodia and Srilanka.

When Buddhism emerged as a new religion people started speaking languages much simpler than Sanskrit. These were known as the Prakrit. In the pre-Gupta period the inscriptions especially the series of Ashoka's edicts are in Prakrit. Prakrits were simpler than Sanskrit in respect of both sound and grammar. One of the early Prakrit of considerable importance was Pali which became the language of one sect of the Buddhists.

Tamil is the oldest of Dravidian languages with a literature dating back to the earliest centauries after the beginning of the Christian era. These languages form an independent group with a distinctive character. From the very early times Tamil was affected by Sanskrit. Early Tamil literature contains relatively few words from Sanskrit and they were adapted to the Tamil phonetic system.

What Languages Are Spoken In India?

With more than 1.35 billion people, the Republic of India has the second-highest population in the world. It also boasts the seventh-highest landmass with 1,27 million square miles (3.29 million square km). Though Hindi and English are the official national languages of the country's government, there are several hundred tongues spoken throughout the South Asian country with numerous dialects of its most common languages found in different regions. With the exception of English, these are the five most commonly spoken languages in India today.

1. Hindi - 528 million speakers

Following Mandarin, Spanish, and English, Hindi is the fourth most common first language in the world, spoken by about 41% of people in India. A descendent of Sanskrit, Hindi has been influenced by several languages over the centuries, including Dravidian tongues, Arabic, Portuguese, English, Persian, and Turkic. There are several dialects that differ between east and west variations of the language.

In recent years there has been a push to make Hindi the most-spoken language within India's borders by measures that included changing the numerals on rupee notes to Devanagari script, which is used to write Hindi in addition to several other native languages, and milestone signage on highways in Tamil Nadu, where other languages are more prevalent, were changed from English to Hindi.

2. Bengali - 97 million speakers

Also known as Bangla by native speakers, Bengali is the official language of Bangladesh, and most spoken in the Indian states of West Bengal, lower Assam and Tripura. Spoken by 8% of Indian citizens, Bengali holds the title as the fifth most-spoken first language in the world. Like Hindi, it evolved from Sanskrit, as well as Pali and Prakrit with influences from many other languages including Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English. It is now divided into eight disparate groups depending on geographical location.

A highway sign with Hindi and English destination names. English is commonly seen in India because many Indians speak it as a second or even third language. Image credit: Animai/Shutterstock

3. Marathi - 83 million speakers

Purported to be more than 1,300 years old, Marathi is spoken by about 7% of Indian people and is the official language of states in the western regions of the country including Goa and Maharashtra. Like other Indian languages, Marathi descended from Sanskrit and is made up of at least 42 regional dialects, some of which resemble eastern Hindi in sound and structure. Its roots can also be found in Indian languages like Konkani, Goanese, Deccan, Gowlan, Ikrani, and Varhadi-Nagpuri.

4. Telugu - 81 million speakers

Telugu, a Dravidian language, is found mainly in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Yanam, as well as the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, and Odisha. Its earliest-known inscriptions appear on coins from 400 BCE, which contain some Telugu words, and the first inscription written entirely in the language was created in 575 AD. It is presumed this was made by Renati Cholas, who was known for writing royal proclamations in the language rather than traditional Sanskrit.

5. Tamil - 67 Million Speakers

Like Telugu, Tamil has Dravidian roots and is spoken by close to 6% of Indian citizens, as well as being an official language in Singapore and Sri Lanka and a recognized minority language in countries like Malaysia, Mauritius, and South Africa. It is notable as one of the oldest languages in the modern world, with a literary history dating back at least 2,000 years. It is commonly spoken in southern India, primarily in the state of Tamil Nadu and the Indian Union Territory of Puducherry. Its earliest-known transcriptions date back to 500 BCE with literature appearing in about 300 CE in its original form, Old Tamil.

Which language is oldest in India? - History

Is There A Connection Between
Ancient Indian And Hebrew Language?

A scholar finds compelling evidence for
ancient Indian influence on a global scale.

Had you been a cartographer and geographer working for the British East India company in the 17th and 18th centuries, you would have found all over India thousands of Hebrew-like place names with similar meanings in both languages as well. The map excerpt on this page shows a small section of ancient Seuna-Desa (Zion Land) in what is now Maharashtra (to right). At the bottom right of the excerpt is the city of Paithan, on the banks of the river Godivari. The Indo-Hebrews named the part of the river passing through Paithan's territory Paithan (Pison, Phison), according to their traditions. In the upper left-hand corner is the city of Satana. According to the legends of the Yadavas (Indo-Hebrews), Satana would have made the folks in Sodom and Gomorah envious. The Seunas and the Satanas decided to resolve their moral and religious differences on the battlefield. The forces of "Satan" lost, but their defeat didn't dishearten them. Eventually, we came to think of "Satan" as a being who lost the battle but not the war. The bible tells us that such a peace treaty hasn't yet been signed between these two ancient enemies.

In that part of India, the holiest of holies for the Indians, the names of many towns end in the appendage gaon. In Hebrew, gaon means "genius great rabbinical scholar." Also in this region is an area that was once the favorite of Yadava royalty: Nashik, the exact Hebrew name for "Royal Prince." Satan is near the district called Khandesh (Land of Cain). There is also a Kodesh. Kod and Khad are Sanskrit terms for "First," "The Beginning," or "God." In Hebrew, Khadesh = "The first day of a Jewish calendar month." Notice that all these names have similar meanings and religious connotations in both languages. I invite my readers to investigate this anomaly for themselves.

The similarity of these Indian and Hebrew names certainly traumatized European colonists. Unwilling to admit that the Jews had never sprouted spontaneously in the Arabian desert, or were from outer space as I read recently, but were from the East as the bible itself tells us, they merely erased these matters from their minds or convinced themselves that they were "coincidences," even though the "coincidences" numbered in the thousands and were peppered over every region in India.

A 19th Century British Scholar Explains Why the Western World Never Learned About the Indian Origins of the Jews.

Though not generally known in this day and age, Godfrey Higgins (1772-1833), archeologist, politician, humanitarian, social reformer, and author, was one of the most enlightened and educated men of early 19th century England. He was a well-known iconoclast, rationalist, and admirer of the Jews, who vehemently opposed any kind of persecution of this ancient religious group. He wrote two oversized volumes, totaling around 1600 pages of fine print, about the Jews' Indian origins. These two volumes, entitled Anacalypsis, are extremely rare. The last printing was done in 1965 by University Books, NY. It's a difficult book to read because the author painstakingly proved the minutest of details in his dissertation. Even good readers need several weeks to finish it.

The first printing consisted of only 200 copies, twenty of which he had to give away. Only a few of the remaining 180 copies were sold. For nearly thirty years, the religious communities of England and Europe quietly suppressed the book. It has since been reprinted three times, but including the first printing, the total copies printed never totaled over a thousand. Only occasionally can it be found in a library. Even so, many authors have quoted and plagiarized it. Not a few spiritual charlatans, such as fraudulent mystics, psychics, and the Presbyterian preacher who wrote the novel on which The Book of Mormon is based, used Anacalypsis to produce their respective heresies and agendas. The famous 19th century mystic and founder of Theosophy, Madam Blavatsky, took advantage of the world's nearly total ignorance of this magnificent document, using much of Higgin's information, to convince the gullible that she had acquired her "mystical knowledge" from "otherworldly" sources called "Akashic records."

Godfrey Higgins gave an opinion that I have always espoused, which explains in part why the similarities of peoples, languages, philosophies, and place names between India and the Middle East became lost to the memory of mankind after Christianity and Islam took over the West.

"The outlines of the history of the extended empires, which I have here exhibited, would have been more conspicuous had our makers of maps and histories recorded the names of the places as they must have appeared to them. But from their native religious prejudices and necessary ignorance of the nature of the history, it seemed to them absurd to believe, that there should be places or persons in the East having exactly the same names as places and persons in the West and to avoid the feared ridicule of their contemporaries, which in fact in opposition to the plainest evidence, and which they themselves could not entirely resist, that they thought well-founded, they have, as much as possible disguised the names. Thus, that which otherwise they would have called David-pouri, they called Daud-poutr, Solomon, Soleiman Johnguior, Jahanguior, etc., etc. In the same way, without any wrong intention, they have been induced to secrete the truth, in many cases, from themselves, by hastily adopting the idea that the old Jewish names of places have been given by the modern Saracens or Turks, the erroneousness of which a moment's unprejudiced consideration would have shewn. I shall here merely add, that. I have observed. a great similarity in the countries where the tribes of Judah were settled in the East and in the West. The Western country seems, as much as possible, to have been accommodated by the Eastern. " (Vol. I, pp. 437-438.)

"When Mahmud of Gazna, the first Mohammedan conqueror, attacked Lahore, he found it defended by a native Hindoo prince called Daood or David. This single fact is enough to settle the question of the places not being named by Mohamedans." (Vol. I p. 432.)

"I beg my reader to look at the ruins of the ancient cities of India: Agra, Delhi, Oude, Mundore, etc., which have many of them been much larger than London, the last for instance, 37 miles in circumference, built in the oldest style of architecture in the world, the Cyclopean, and I think he must at once see the absurdity of the little Jewish mountain tribe (the "Lost Tribes") being the founders of such a mass of cities. We must also consider that we have almost all the places of India in Western Syria. I think no one can help seeing that these circumstances are to be accounted for in no other way than by the supposition that there was in very ancient times one universal superstition, which was carried all over the world by emigrating tribes, and that they were originally from Upper India." (Vol. I p. 432.)

". the natives of Cashmere as well as those of Afghanistan, pretending to be descended from the Jews, give pedigrees of their kings reigning in their present country up to the sun and the moon, and along with this, they shew you the Temples still standing, built by Solomon, statues of Noah, and other Jewish Patriarchs. the traditions of the Afghans tell them, that they are descended from the tribe of Ioudi or Yuda, and in this they are right, for it is the tribe of Joudi noticed by Eusebius to have existed before the Son of Jacob in Western Syria was born, the Joudi of Oude, and from which tribe the Western Jews with the Brahmin (Abraham) descended and migrated. (Vol. I p. 740.)

"In the valley of Cashmere, on a hill close to the lake, are the ruins of a temple of Solomon. The history states that Solomon, finding the valley all covered with water except this hill, which was an island, opened the passage in the mountains and let most of it out, thus giving to Cashmere its beautiful plains. The temple which is built on the hill is called Tucht Suliman. Afterwards Forster says, 'Previously to the Mahometan conquest of India, Kashmere was celebrated for the learning of the Brahmins and the magnificent construction of its temple.' Now what am I to make of this? Were these Brahmans Jews, or the Jews Brahmins? The inadvertent way in which Forster states the fact precludes all idea of deceit.

"The Tuct Soliman of Cashmere in the time of Bernier, was described by him to be in ruins, and to have been a temple of the idolaters and not of the Mohamedans. The Mohamedans reported that it was built by Solomon, in very ancient times. All this at once does away with the pretence that it was a building of the modern Mohamedans and is a strong confirmation of the Jewish nature of the other names of the towns - Yuda-poor, Iod-pore, etc., etc. Bernier goes on to say. that the name of Mousa or Moses is common among the natives, that Moses died at Cashmere, and that they yet show the ruins of his tomb near the town. This is curious when connected with the fact, that the Jews of Western Syria say, no one ever knew where he was buried." (Vol. I p. 771.)

An article in the April, 1997 issue of the Jewish magazine Moment discusses the possibility that a heavy Jewish presence once dominated India.

"A tribe of Sunni Moslems called the Pathans, now living in parts of Pakistan, number at least 15 million. The Pathan language bears traces of biblical Hebrew, and the Pathans themselves claim lineage from King Saul. They are said to follow, in varying degrees of observance, some 21 'Jewish' customs, including lighting candles on Friday night, wearing a four-cornered prayer garment, and performing circumcision on the eighth day.

Then there are the Kashmiris from Northern India, who number about five million although they too are predominantly Sunni Moslems, many bear biblical-sounding names like Cleb (Caleb), Israel, Hahana, and Lavni. " (Searching for the Lost Tribes, by Winston Pickett, p. 51.)

Aramaic, a language as similar to Hebrew as Spanish is to Portuguese, originated in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Both Afghanistan and Pakistan were once part of India. Afghanistan seceded from Indian in the 1700s. Pakistan was cut out of India when the two nations were partitioned after World War II. Aramaic also is the source of modern Hebrew's square alphabet, used in Israel today. The Hebrew square alphabet and the truth that Hebrew is just an Aramaic dialect confirm the Indian origin of the Jews.

Those Christian and Jewish authorities who don't want it to be true that ten to thirty million Jews once lived in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Northwestern India say that it is just a "coincidence" that so many tribes and places there have biblical names. Others insist that the Moslems christened all those tribes and places. As Godfrey Higgins tells us, many of those tribes and places had already received their so-called "biblical names" millenniums before Islam was a gleam in Mohammed's eyes and many centuries before those same names started showing up in the Middle East. Some of Israel's tribal and place names also started appearing in Afghanistan, Kashmir, and Northwestern India when Sargon II and Nebuchadnezzar exiled most of the Jews to that part of the world. The confusion about the origin of those tribal and place names will always exist as long as we stubbornly refuse to give the Indo-Hebrews their rightful place in history. The Aryans and Indo-Hebrews began to overrun parts of India and the Middle East around 2000 BC, perhaps more than a thousand years previously if there is any truth to the story about the progeny of Noah.

Somehow, our brainwashed minds blank out the face that the Ancient Egyptian and Akkadian names for Hebrew, Habiru and Apiru were derived from Indo-Hebrew dialects and meant "Sons of Ophir." The truth about the origins of the Hebrews has been screaming in our faces for thousands of years, but our benumbed minds have chosen not to hear it.

Linguistic Similarities Between Hebrew and Kashmiri

Holger Kersten wrote in Jesus Lived in India,

Since the ancient Jews never forced their language on the peoples in their ambience, just their religion, I concur with authors Obermeir and Hassnain on this point.

In old times, Kashmiri didn't exist as a distinct language as it does today. The Kashmiri historical treatises state that the Brahmans and Kashatriya castes spoke Sanskrit the Vaishyas and the Sudras spoke a language called Ap-Abram-Sha, which was supposed to be a degraded form of Tamil. Was this the original Asura language, or, perhaps, prototypical Hebrew? Some Hindu scholars think so. Abraham was the father of several different peoples, religions, and Semitic dialects. Abraham's influence formed at least part of the foundations of Judaism, Greek and Roman religious practices, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, and others. When the "Lost Tribes" were taken to Northern India, they found a people with a similar religion, language, and cultural traits. It took no great effort for the "Lost Tribes" to assimilate completely. Later on, Hebrew, Dardic, Apabramsha, Sanskrit, Arabic, and other languages merged to form what we now call Kashmiri. Some scholars say that the Moslem invaders forbade the speaking of Apabramsha and Hebrew in Kashmir.

The Buddhists say that the Abhiraans spoke "Abhira." The Yadavas, the actual proto-typical Hebrews still living in India, also claim to have spoken a language called Abhiri. "The Natyasastra of Bharata described the language. as Abhiri or Sabari. It is well known that Abhiri was the language of the Abhiras." (Yadavas Through the Ages, by Yadav Singh Vol. II, p. 4.) Yadav Singh's opinion on this matter may prove to be correct. Even today, Israeli Jews whose roots sink deep into Israeli soil are called "Sabaras."

I have taken from my Kashmiri dictionary a long list of words that are similar in pronunciation and meaning to Hebrew. I could have easily provided a list containing hundreds more, many of which I shall mention in later chapters. However, I hope that the following list will convince you that the Kashmiri language, one of the most little-known languages in the world, deserves more attention and study.

Judaism and Shaivite Hinduism Share the Same Names for God.

Ish Yish Is Isa Issa El Al etc.
(Suffixes and prefixes for "God")
The same in Shaivism
Yahve Jahve Tseeva (God)Shiva Shaiva Siva (God)
Elohim Elokhim (God intellectualized)Lakhimi (Goddess of Prosperity) Lokhi Lukh (Shiva)
El Shaddai (The Almighty)Saday Sada (Shiva)
Ha-Kadosh (The Holy One)Hakh-e-Kheda (God's Duty)
El Elyon (Possessor of Heaven and Earth)Il Layun (Absorption in God)
Yesoda (Dual Sexual Nature of Life)Yeshoda (Shiva's Dual Sexual Nature)

Similar sacred symbolism and iconography are associated with both the Hebrew Yah-Veh and the Kashmiri Shaiva: The Holy Trinity the flame the cherub the guardian angel the snake the bull blowing of bull's horn, etc.

Hebrew and Kashmiri Cabalistic Terminology Is About the Same.

Ani (he spark of life)Agni (Vedic god of fire)
Avoda (work labor)Vud Wud (skilled labor)
Ayeen (void non-being)Ayen (eternity)
Cabala (acceptance)Cabul (acceptance)
Guevara (force)Gav'r (surrounding and attacking)
Keter (crown)Kash'r (crown of the head)
Kijum (destiny)Ko-Yimi (path to death)
Klim (nothing)Kholi (nothing)
Malkuth (kingdom)Mulakh (kingdom)
Nefesh (soul)Naph's (soul spirit self)
Sephiroth (spiritual energy centers)Sipath (spiritual energy centers)
Yesu Yesh Yeh Yahu Yakhu Yah Yao Ie
(The Material Universe)
The same as in Judaism
Yesh me Ayeen (The Goal of Creation)Yech me ayen (Creation Fused to the Void)
Zohar (brilliance)Swar Svar (Heaven light brilliance)

More Linguistic Proof of the Linkage Between India and the Middle East

My investigations into the Indian origins of the Jews and Holy Land place names are not the first to have been made. In the mid-part of the 19th century, the Identification Society of London, an organization dedicated to searching for the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, published the following list to prove that the Afghans, Tibetans, Kashmiris, and other Northwest Indian tribes are either descended from the Israelites or vice-versa. Not all the tribes, castes, and subcastes on their list have preserved their Jewishness. However, nearly all of them acknowledge their Jewish roots. As you read this list of names, remember that they exist in the area that Josephus said was peopled by the descendants of Shem. "These inhabited from Cophen, an Indian river (the Kabul river) and in part of Asia adjoining it. (Josephus. Chapter VII-4.)

Many scholars believe that the Dravidians could have been the ancestors of the prototypical Jews, the Meluhhans, who came from the Tibetan plateau or from the Turanian homeland of Central Asia - the area originally peopled by the progeny of Shem.

As Kauleshwar Rai wrote in Ancient India,

In the following list, all references to Indian tribes, castes, subcastes, and places will be listed at the left. Biblical and Hebrew names will be listed after each Indian word, accompanied by their biblical references. You will note that the comparative words are either identical or nearly identical. The differences are trivial. Even a non-linguist can notice that all these words sprang from the same source. The similarities are too abundant to be coincidental. Wanting to remain as conservative as possible, I present only a partial list. However, as conservative and brief as this list is, I believe I have presented enough examples to convince anyone that India did, indeed, at one time dominate in Bible Land.

Abri- Ibri (1 Chr. 24-27)
Amal - Amal (1 Chr. 7:35).
Asaul - Asahel (2 Chr. 17:18)
Asheriya - Asher (Gen. 30:13)
Azri - Azriel (! Chr. 5:24)
Bal. - Baal (1 Chr. 5:5)
Bala Balah - Bala (Josh. 19:3)
Bakru - Bokheru (1 Chr. 7:6)
Baktu - Baca (1 Chr. 8:38)
Banniya - Baana (1 Chr. 11:30)
Bellu - Bela (Gen. 14:9)
Bera Baru - Beerah (1 (Chr. 5:6)
Basaya - Basseiah (1 Chr. 6:40)
Beroth - Beeroth (2 Sam. 4:2)
Bilgai - Bilgah (Neh. 12:5)
Buhana - Bohan (Josh. 15:6)
Buir - Beor (Ps. 23:4)
Butt - Bath (1 Ki. 7:26)
Caleb Kleb - Caleb (1 Chr. 2:18)
Dar Dhar Darku - Dor (1 Ki. 4:11)
Dara - Dara (1 Chr. 2:6)
Dum - Dumah (1 Chr. 1:30)
Gabba - Geba (Josh. 18:24)
Gaddar - Gedor (1 Chr. 4:4)
Gadha - Gad (1 Chr. 2:2)
Gaddi - Gaddi (Nu. 13:11)v Gani Gani - Guni (1 Chr. 1:40)
Gareb - Gareb (1 Chr. 7:13)
Gomer - Gomer (Gen. 10:2)
Hahput - Hatipha (Neh. 7:56)v Iqqash - Ikkesh (1 Chr. 11:28)
Ishai - Ishui (1 Sam. 14:49)
Israel - Israel (Gen. 32:28)
Kahan Masu - Kahana Kan, Kanah (Josh. 19:28)
Kalkul - Calcol (1 Chr. 2:6)
Kanaz - Kenaz (Ju. 3:9)
Kar - Careah (2 Ki. 25:23)
Karrah - Korah (Nu. 26:9)
Kaul - Caul (Isa. 3:18)
Kadu Kaddua Khadu - Cauda (Act. 27:16)
Kotru - Keturah (Gen. 25:4)
Laddu - Lud (1 Chr. 1:17)
Lavi Laveh - Levi (1Chr. 2:1)
Magar - Magor (Jer. 22:3)
Mahlu - Mahali (Ex. 6:19)
Maikri - Machir (Josh. 17:1)
Malla Maula - Maaleh (Josh. 15:3)
Mallak - Mallouck (1 Chr. 6:44)
Matri - Matri (1 Sam. 10:21)
Meresh - Meres (Esther 1:14)
Mir - Mearah (Josh. 13:4)
Mahsa Mahsi - Massah (Ex. 17:7)
Moza - Moza (1 Chr. 7:36)
Musa - Moses
Nehru - Nahor (1 Chr. 1:26)
Opal Upal - Ophel (2 Chr. 28:3)
Pareh - Paruah (1 Ki. 4:17)
Phalu Pau - Phallu Puah Pua (Nu. 26:23)
Poot Put - Phut Put (a Chr. 1:8)
Raina - Rinnah (1 Chr. 4:20)
Raphu - Raphu (1 Ki. 11:23)
Reshu Resh Reshi - Rhesa (Luke 3:27)
Reu Reu-wal - Reu (Gen. 12:18)
Reual - Reuel (Nu. 2:14)
Sachu - Sechu (1 Sam. 19:22)
Sam - Shem (Gen. 5:32)
Sapru Sapra - Saphir (Mic. 1:11)
Seh - Siah (Neh. 7:47)
Shahmiri - Shamir (1 Chr. 24:24)
Shaul - Shaul (1 Chr. 4:24)
Shavi - Shaveh (Gen. 14:17)
Shora - Sherah (1 Chr. 7:2)
Shuah - Shuah (1 Chr. 4:11)

Origin of the Hindi language: Sanskrit and Prakrit

The Hindi language evolved from Sanskrit, an ancient Indo-European language.


Based on linguistic grounds, Vedic Sanskrit could date as far back as 1500 BC. Some of the oldest pieces of Hindi literature, such as some of the hymns of the Hindu compilation called the Rigveda, were written in Vedic Sanskrit.

Sanskrit sutras in the Rigveda (Devanagari script). Photo credit: unknown, Public Domain on Wikipedia Commons

Around 800 BC it morphed into Classical Sanskrit, a language mostly spoken by the upper class, which remained the classical literary language in India for a long time. Though few still speak it, it is still taught in schools the same way that Latin is taught as the classical literary language of Europe.

Find a Hindi class anywhere in the UK.


Prakrit languages evolved from Vedic and Classical Sanskrit. The earliest are attested around 500 BC the latest around 800 AD. Linguists differ as to whether all Middle Indo-Aryan languages should be grouped under the term Prakrit as it is, most of the Indo-European languages of India evolved from one or more of them.

Some were Dramatic Prakrits, that is to say, languages used almost exclusively for literature and plays. None of these was used in everyday speech and very often Sanskrit translations were provided so the reader could understand the dialogue. However, as Sanskrit lost ground in certain areas, some dramatic Prakrits devolved into vernacular languages, such as Maharashtra Prakrit, the ancestor of the Marathi language.

The most important Prakrit language was Ardhmagadhi Prakrit, and its grammar is usually used as the standard to teach other Prakrits. In regions where Hindi would later be spoken, however, Sanskrit remained very popular, so that the etymology of many Hindi words comes directly from Sanskrit rather than through a Prakrit language.

The way to Hindustani

In northern India around 500 AD, the Apabhramsha dialects evolved from Prakrit. They served as a kind of lingua franca in use until the 13th century AD and were referred to as Hindavi by the Persian rulers of the Delhi Sultanate who ruled large swathes of India from 1206 to 1526. The Hindi languages started branching off from Apabramsha around the 11th century AD, most of them being entirely distinct by the 12th, though in many places the Apabhramsha languages were still spoken in parallel.

It was under the Delhi Sultanate that the Persian language first started mixing with the local Apabhramsha dialects to form what would later become the Hindi and Urdu language.

The Persian language influenced both Hindi and Urdu - though its mark is more evident in the latter. Photo credit: dynamosquito on VisualHunt

In 1526, the Moghul Empire, a persianised empire of Turko-Mongol descent, supplanted the Delhi Sultanate and ruled over much of India, allowing even more Persian loanwords to enter the language.

By the time the Moghul Empire slowly dissolved in the 18th century, Khari Boli or Khariboli vernacular, successor dialects to the Apabhramsha languages, had replaced Persian as the common language.

The variant of Khariboli used by the upper class in northern India became known as Hindustani.

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