Identification of ship and seaplane type

Identification of ship and seaplane type

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Can anyone give clues on the type of ship and seaplane and the time frame?

The seamen look USN-ish, the barrels of a heavy triple turret are in view in the foreground. This looks like the quarterdeck of a USN 14 inch gunned battleship in the inter-war period. In fact the aircraft looks near identical to the one in the photo of the Oklahoma allegedly circa 1920 attached. Not that the ship is necessarily the Oklahoma.

US Navy and Marine Corps Museum/Naval Aviation Museum, Photo No. 1985.055.001.038

Further research indicates that the aircraft in question is very probably a Vought UO-1 which means that the original photo probably dates to between 1922 and the late 1920's. Here is a better photo of one of the OU-1s from/on the California (the more I look at this latter photo the more I suspect that the original photo was also on the California and only minutes before or after this one - The officers and men are in the same rig and look at the way the rope on deck in the mid-ground is laying,… even the shadows are similar sized and oriented):

San Diego Air & Space Museum Archive

Conclusion: the plane is a Vought UO-1 and the ship is the USS California, BB44.

The ship and plane look very similar to this one:

via San Diego Air and Space Museum Archive's Flickr stream. Another picture in the same stream shows the same scene from a different angle, including the guns.

The ship, its deck and launching mechanism, the plane and its landing gear look almost identical.

That would mean you're looking at the USS West Virginia some time before it was sunk in the attack on Pearl Harbor.

West Virginia had four twin 16"/45 turrets, so the original photo can't be a Colorado Class battleship.

We need one with a triple turret, like the prior Tennessee class, with 4 triple 14"/45 turrets, which had only Tennessee &California. The New Mexico Class seems to look the most like it, especially as to the angle of seeing the guns with the shorter fantail (Mississippi, New Mexico & Idaho). But the Pennsylvania Class's triple turrets are also a possibility (this included only Arizona & Pennsylvania).

We'll try to ID the plane later, which we're pretty sure is a Vought.

EDIT: Yup, Vought UO-1. Here's a plan of it that lets you see how the nose matches up, the length of the wings, &c.

The photo shows it in a cradle on land, but in this case it's specifically one off the Tennessee. An image search on Google will keep you busy for an hour.

Vought already had a two-seat observation plane, the UO-1, basically a VE with additional fuselage streamlining and a Wright J-3 radial engine.

This was developed into the Vought FU that served 1927-29. The UO-1 first flew in 1922, went into service on the USS Richmond in 1923. After a variety of engines and minor modifications, the last were retired in 1933. (The Vought site.) So your temporal window is 1923-1933. (The earliest possible ships were commissioned in 1916 and retired 1946, let alone the later classes.)

United States Navy Edit

The U.S. Navy began to assign unique Naval Registry Identification Numbers to its ships in the 1890s. The system was a simple one in which each ship received a number which was appended to its ship type, fully spelled out, and added parenthetically after the ship's name when deemed necessary to avoid confusion between ships. Under this system, for example, the battleship Indiana was USS Indiana (Battleship No. 1,) the cruiser Olympia was USS Olympia (Cruiser No. 6,) and so on. Beginning in 1907, some ships also were referred to alternatively by single-letter or three-letter codes—for example, USS Indiana (Battleship No. 1) could be referred to as USS Indiana (B-1) and USS Olympia (Cruiser No. 6) could also be referred to as USS Olympia (C-6), while USS Pennsylvania (Armored Cruiser No. 4) could be referred to as USS Pennsylvania (ACR-4). However, rather than replacing it, these codes coexisted and were used interchangeably with the older system until the modern system was instituted on 17 July 1920. [1]

During World War I, the U.S. Navy acquired large numbers of privately owned and commercial ships and craft for use as patrol vessels, mine warfare vessels, and various types of naval auxiliary ships, some of them with identical names. To keep track of them all, the Navy assigned unique identifying numbers to them. Those deemed appropriate for patrol work received section patrol numbers (SP), while those intended for other purposes received "identification numbers", generally abbreviated "Id. No." or "ID" some ships and craft changed from an SP to an ID number or vice versa during their careers, without their unique numbers themselves changing, and some ships and craft assigned numbers in anticipation of naval service were never acquired by the Navy. The SP/ID numbering sequence was unified and continuous, with no SP number repeated in the ID series or vice versa so that there could not be, for example, both an "SP-435" and an "Id. No 435". The SP and ID numbers were used parenthetically after each boat's or ship's name to identify it although this system pre-dated the modern hull classification system and its numbers were not referred to at the time as "hull codes" or "hull numbers," it was used in a similar manner to today's system and can be considered its precursor. [2]

United States Revenue Cutter Service and United States Coast Guard Edit

The United States Revenue Cutter Service, which merged with the United States Lifesaving Service in January 1915 to form the modern United States Coast Guard, began following the Navy's lead in the 1890s, with its cutters having parenthetical numbers called Naval Registry Identification Numbers following their names, such as (Cutter No. 1), etc. This persisted until the Navy's modern hull classification system's introduction in 1920, which included Coast Guard ships and craft.

United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Edit

Like the U.S. Navy, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey – a uniformed seagoing service of the United States Government and a predecessor of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) – adopted a hull number system for its fleet in the 20th century. Its largest vessels, "Category I" oceanographic survey ships, were classified as "ocean survey ships" and given the designation "OSS". Intermediate-sized "Category II" oceanographic survey ships received the designation "MSS" for "medium survey ship," and smaller "Category III" oceanographic survey ships were given the classification "CSS" for "coastal survey ship." A fourth designation, "ASV" for "auxiliary survey vessel," included even smaller vessels. In each case, a particular ship received a unique designation based on its classification and a unique hull number separated by a space rather than a hyphen for example, the third Coast and Geodetic Survey ship named Pioneer was an ocean survey ship officially known as USC&GS Pioneer (OSS 31). [3] [4] The Coast and Geodetic Survey ' s system persisted after the creation of NOAA in 1970, when NOAA took control of the Survey ' s fleet, but NOAA later changed to its modern hull classification system.

United States Fish and Wildlife Service Edit

The Fish and Wildlife Service, created in 1940 and reorganized as the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1956, adopted a hull number system for its fisheries research ships and patrol vessels. It consisted of "FWS" followed by a unique identifying number. In 1970, NOAA took control of the seagoing ships of the USFWS′s Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, and as part of the NOAA fleet they eventually were renumbered under the NOAA hull number system.

United States Navy Edit

The U.S. Navy instituted its modern hull classification system on 17 July 1920, doing away with section patrol numbers, "identification numbers", and the other numbering systems described above. In the new system, all hull classification symbols are at least two letters for basic types the symbol is the first letter of the type name, doubled, except for aircraft carriers.

The combination of symbol and hull number identifies a modern Navy ship uniquely. A heavily modified or re-purposed ship may receive a new symbol, and either retain the hull number or receive a new one. For example, the heavy gun cruiser USS Boston (CA-69) was converted to a gun/missile cruiser, changing the hull number to CAG-1. Also, the system of symbols has changed a number of times both since it was introduced in 1907 and since the modern system was instituted in 1920, so ships' symbols sometimes change without anything being done to the physical ship. [5]

Hull numbers are assigned by classification. Duplication between, but not within, classifications is permitted. Hence, CV-1 was the aircraft carrier USS Langley and BB-1 was the battleship USS Indiana.

Ship types and classifications have come and gone over the years, and many of the symbols listed below are not presently in use. The Naval Vessel Register maintains an online database of U.S. Navy ships showing which symbols are presently in use.

After World War II until 1975, the U.S. Navy defined a "frigate" as a type of surface warship larger than a destroyer and smaller than a cruiser. In other navies, such a ship generally was referred to as a "flotilla leader", or "destroyer leader". Hence the U.S. Navy's use of "DL" for "frigate" prior to 1975, while "frigates" in other navies were smaller than destroyers and more like what the U.S. Navy termed a "destroyer escort", "ocean escort", or "DE". The United States Navy 1975 ship reclassification of cruisers, frigates, and ocean escorts brought U.S. Navy classifications into line with other nations' classifications, at least cosmetically in terms of terminology, and eliminated the perceived "cruiser gap" with the Soviet Navy by redesignating the former "frigates" as "cruisers".

Military Sealift Command Edit

If a U.S. Navy ship's hull classification symbol begins with "T-", it is part of the Military Sealift Command, has a primarily civilian crew, and is a United States Naval Ship (USNS) in non-commissioned service – as opposed to a commissioned United States Ship (USS) with an all-military crew.

United States Coast Guard Edit

If a ship's hull classification symbol begins with "W", it is a commissioned cutter of the United States Coast Guard. Until 1965, the Coast Guard used U.S. Navy hull classification codes, prepending a "W" to their beginning. In 1965, it retired some of the less mission-appropriate Navy-based classifications and developed new ones of its own, most notably WHEC for "high endurance cutter" and WMEC for "medium endurance cutter".

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Edit

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), a component of the United States Department of Commerce, includes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps (or "NOAA Corps"), one of the eight uniformed services of the United States, and operates a fleet of seagoing research and survey ships. The NOAA fleet also uses a hull classification symbol system, which it also calls "hull numbers," for its ships.

After NOAA took over the former fleets of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Bureau of Commercial Fisheries in 1970, it adopted a new system of ship classification. In its system, the NOAA fleet is divided into two broad categories, research ships and survey ships. The research ships, which include oceanographic and fisheries research vessels, are given hull numbers beginning with "R", while the survey ships, generally hydrographic survey vessels, receive hull numbers beginning with "S". The letter is followed by a three-digit number the first digit indicates the NOAA "class" (i.e., size) of the vessel, which NOAA assigns based on the ship's gross tonnage and horsepower, while the next two digits combine with the first digit to create a unique three-digit identifying number for the ship.

Generally, each NOAA hull number is written with a space between the letter and the three-digit number, as in, for example, NOAAS Nancy Foster (R 352) or NOAAS Thomas Jefferson (S 222) . [6]

Unlike in the U.S. Navy system, once an older NOAA ship leaves service, a newer one can be given the same hull number for example, "S 222" was assigned to NOAAS Mount Mitchell (S 222) , then assigned to NOAAS Thomas Jefferson (S 222), which entered NOAA service after Mount Mitchell was stricken.

The U.S. Navy's system of alpha-numeric ship designators, and its associated hull numbers, have been for several decades a unique method of categorizing ships of all types: combatants, auxiliaries and district craft. Though considerably changed in detail and expanded over the years, this system remains essentially the same as when formally implemented in 1920. It is a very useful tool for organizing and keeping track of naval vessels, and also provides the basis for the identification numbers painted on the bows (and frequently the sterns) of most U.S. Navy ships.

The ship designator and hull number system's roots extend back to the late 1880s when ship type serial numbers were assigned to most of the new-construction warships of the emerging "Steel Navy". During the course of the next thirty years, these same numbers were combined with filing codes used by the Navy's clerks to create an informal version of the system that was put in place in 1920. Limited usage of ship numbers goes back even earlier, most notably to the "Jeffersonian Gunboats" of the early 1800s and the "Tinclad" river gunboats of the Civil War Mississippi Squadron.

It is important to understand that hull number-letter prefixes are not acronyms, and should not be carelessly treated as abbreviations of ship type classifications. Thus, "DD" does not stand for anything more than "Destroyer". "SS" simply means "Submarine". And "FF" is the post-1975 type code for "Frigate." [7]

The hull classification codes for ships in active duty in the United States Navy are governed under Secretary of the Navy Instruction 5030.8B (SECNAVINST 5030.8B).

Warships Edit

Warships are designed to participate in combat operations.

The origin of the two-letter code derives from the need to distinguish various cruiser subtypes. [1]

Battleship Heavy gun-armed vessel (–1962) BB
Cruiser armored (1921–1931)
heavy (1931–1975)
large (–1947) CB
light (–1950) CL
aviation or voler CV
Destroyer ship DD
escort DE

Aircraft carrier type Edit

Aircraft carriers are ships designed primarily for the purpose of conducting combat operations by aircraft which engage in attacks against airborne, surface, sub-surface and shore targets. Contrary to popular belief, the "CV" hull classification symbol does not stand for "carrier vessel". "CV" derives from the cruiser designation, with one popular theory that the v comes from French voler, "to fly", but this has never been definitively proven. [8] [9] Aircraft carriers are designated in two sequences: the first sequence runs from CV-1 USS Langley to the very latest ships, and the second sequence, "CVE" for escort carriers, ran from CVE-1 Long Island to CVE-127 Okinawa before being discontinued.

  • AV: Seaplane tender (retired)
  • AVG: Auxiliary aircraft ferry (repurposed escort carrier) (1941–42)
  • AVD: Seaplane tender destroyer (retired)
  • AVP: Seaplane tender, Small (retired)
  • AVT (i) Auxiliary aircraft transport (retired)
  • AVT (ii) Auxiliary training carrier (retired)
  • ACV: Auxiliary aircraft carrier (escort carrier, replaced by CVE) (1942)
  • CV: Fleet aircraft carrier (1921–1975), multi-purpose aircraft carrier (1975–present)
  • CVA: Aircraft carrier, attack (category merged into CV, 30 June 1975)
  • CV(N): Aircraft carrier, night (deck equipped with lighting and pilots trained and for nighttime fights) (1944) (retired)
  • CVAN: Aircraft carrier, attack, nuclear-powered (category merged into CVN, 30 June 1975)
  • CVB: Aircraft carrier, large (original USS Midway class, category merged into CVA, 1952)
  • CVE: Escort aircraft carrier (retired) (1943–retirement of type)
  • CVHA: Aircraft carrier, helicopter assault (retired in favor of several LH-series amphibious assault ship hull codes)
  • CVHE: Aircraft carrier, helicopter, escort (retired)
  • CVL: Light aircraft carrier or aircraft carrier, small (retired) [10][11][12]
  • CVN: Aircraft carrier, nuclear-powered
  • CVS: Antisubmarine aircraft carrier (retired)
  • CVT: Aircraft carrier, training (changed to AVT (auxiliary))
  • CVU: Aircraft carrier, utility (retired)
  • CVG: Aircraft carrier, guided missile (retired)
  • CVV: [13]Aircraft carrier, vari-purpose, medium (retired unused)

Surface combatant type Edit

Surface combatants are ships which are designed primarily to engage enemy forces on the high seas. The primary surface combatants are battleships, cruisers and destroyers. Battleships are very heavily armed and armored cruisers moderately so destroyers and smaller warships, less so. Before 1920, ships were called "<type> no. X", with the type fully pronounced. The types were commonly abbreviated in ship lists to "B-X", "C-X", "D-X" et cetera—for example, before 1920, USS Minnesota (BB-22) would have been called "USS Minnesota, Battleship number 22" orally and "USS Minnesota, B-22" in writing. After 1920, the ship's name would have been both written and pronounced "USS Minnesota (BB-22)". In generally decreasing size, the types are:

  • ACR: Armored Cruiser (pre-1920)
  • AFSB: Afloat forward staging base (also AFSB(I) for "interim", changed to ESB for Expeditionary Mobile Dock)
  • B: Battleship (pre-1920)
  • BB: Battleship
  • BBG: Battleship, guided missile or arsenal ship (theoretical only, never assigned) [A 1]
  • BM: Monitor (1920–retirement)
  • C: Cruiser (pre-1920 protected cruisers and peace cruisers)
  • CA: (first series) Cruiser, armored (retired, comprised all surviving pre-1920 armored and protected cruisers)
  • CA: (second series) Heavy cruiser, category later renamed gun cruiser (retired)
  • CAG: Cruiser, heavy, guided missile (retired)
  • CB: Large cruiser (retired)
  • CBC: Large command cruiser (retired, never used operationally) [A 2]
  • CC: Battlecruiser (retired, never used operationally) [A 3]
  • CC: (second usage) command ship (retired) [A 4]
  • CLC: Command cruiser [A 4]
  • CG: Cruiser, guided missile
  • CGN: Cruiser, guided missile, nuclear-powered: USS Long Beach (CGN-9) and USS Bainbridge (CGN-25)
  • CL: Cruiser, light (retired)
  • CLAA: Cruiser, light, anti-aircraft (retired)
  • CLG: Cruiser, light, guided missile (retired)
  • CLGN: Cruiser, light, guided missile, nuclear-powered (retired)
  • CLK: Cruiser, hunter–killer (abolished 1951) [A 5]
  • CM: Cruiser–minelayer (retired)
  • CS: Scout cruiser (retired)
  • CSGN: Cruiser, strike, guided missile, nuclear-powered (retired, never used operationally)
  • D: Destroyer (pre-1920)
  • DD: Destroyer
  • DDC: Corvette (briefly proposed in the mid-1950s) [14]
  • DDE: Escort destroyer, a destroyer (DD) converted for antisubmarine warfare – category abolished 1962. (not to be confused with destroyer escort DE)
  • DDG: Destroyer, guided missile
  • DDK: Hunter–killer destroyer (category merged into DDE, 4 March 1950)
  • DDR: Destroyer, radar picket (retired)
  • DE: Destroyer escort (World War II, later became Ocean escort)
  • DE: Ocean escort (abolished 30 June 1975)
  • DEG: Guided missile ocean escort (abolished 30 June 1975)
  • DER: Radar picket destroyer escort (abolished 30 June 1975) There were two distinct breeds of DE, the World War II destroyer escorts (some of which were converted to DERs) and the postwar DE/DEG classes, which were known as ocean escorts despite carrying the same type symbol as the World War II destroyer escorts. All DEs, DEGs, and DERs were reclassified as FFs, FFGs, or FFRs, 30 June 1975.
  • DL: Destroyer leader (later frigate) (retired) [A 5]
  • DLG: Frigate, guided missile (abolished 30 June 1975)
  • DLGN: Frigate, guided missile, nuclear-propulsion (abolished 30 June 1975) The DL category was established in 1951 with the abolition of the CLK category. CLK 1 became DL 1 and DD 927–930 became DL 2–5. By the mid-1950s the term destroyer leader had been dropped in favor of frigate. Most DLGs and DLGNs were reclassified as CGs and CGNs, 30 June 1975. However, DLG 6–15 became DDG 37–46. The old DLs were already gone by that time. Only applied to USS Bainbridge (DLGN-25) .
  • DM: Destroyer, minelayer (retired)
  • DMS: Destroyer, minesweeper (retired)
  • FF: Frigate
  • PF: Patrol frigate (retired)
  • FFG: Frigate, guided missile
  • FFH: Frigate with assigned helicopter [15]
  • FFL: Frigate, light
  • FFR: Frigate, radar picket (retired)
  • FFT: Frigate (reserve training) (retired) The FF, FFG, and FFR designations were established 30 June 1975 as new type symbols for ex-DEs, DEGs, and DERs. The first new-built ships to carry the FF/FFG designation were the Oliver Hazard Perry-classfrigates. In January 2015, it was announced that the LCS ship types would be redesignated as FF.
  • PG: Patrol gunboat (retired)
  • PCH: Patrol craft, hydrofoil (retired)
  • PHM: Patrol, hydrofoil, missile (retired)
  • K: Corvette (retired)
  • LCS: Littoral combat ship In January 2015, the Navy announced that the up-gunned LCS will be reclassified as a frigate, since the requirements of the SSC Task Force was to upgrade the ships with frigate-like capabilities. Hull designations will be changed from LCS to FF existing LCSs back-fitted with modifications may also earn the FF label. [16] The Navy is hoping to start retrofitting technological upgrades onto existing and under construction LCSs before 2019. [17]
  • LSES: Large Surface Effect Ship
  • M: Monitor (1880s–1920)
  • SES: Surface Effect Ship
  • TB: Torpedo boat

Submarine type Edit

Submarines are all self-propelled submersible types (usually started with SS) regardless of whether employed as combatant, auxiliary, or research and development vehicles which have at least a residual combat capability. While some classes, including all diesel-electric submarines, are retired from USN service, non-U.S. navies continue to employ SS, SSA, SSAN, SSB, SSC, SSG, SSM, and SST types. [18] With the advent of new Air Independent Propulsion/Power (AIP) systems, both SSI and SSP are used to distinguish the types within the USN, but SSP has been declared the preferred term. SSK, retired by the USN, continues to be used colloquially and interchangeably with SS for diesel-electric attack/patrol submarines within the USN, and, more formally, by the Royal Navy and British firms such as Jane's Information Group.

  • SC: Cruiser Submarine (retired)
  • SF: Fleet Submarine (retired)
  • SM: Submarine Minelayer (retired)
  • SS: Submarine, Attack Submarine[19]
  • SSA: Submarine Auxiliary, Auxiliary/Cargo Submarine
  • SSAN: Submarine Auxiliary Nuclear, Auxiliary/Cargo Submarine, Nuclear-powered
  • SSB: Submarine Ballistic, Ballistic Missile Submarine
  • SSBN: Submarine Ballistic Nuclear, Ballistic Missile Submarine, Nuclear-powered
  • SSC: Coastal Submarine, over 150 tons
  • SSG: Guided Missile Submarine
  • SSGN: Guided Missile Submarine, Nuclear-powered
  • SSI: Attack Submarine (Diesel Air-Independent Propulsion) [20]
  • SSK: Hunter-Killer/ASW Submarine (retired) [21]
  • SSM: Midget Submarine, under 150 tons : Attack Submarine, Nuclear-powered
  • SSNR: Special Attack Submarine [note 1]
  • SSO: Submarine Oiler (retired)
  • SSP: Attack Submarine (Diesel Air-Independent Power) (alternate use), formerly Submarine Transport
  • SSQ: Auxiliary Submarine, Communications (retired)
  • SSQN: Auxiliary Submarine, Communications, Nuclear-powered (retired) [22]
  • SSR: Radar Picket Submarine (retired)
  • SSRN: Radar Picket Submarine, Nuclear-powered (retired)
  • SST: Training Submarine
  • AGSS: Auxiliary Submarine
  • AOSS: Submarine Oiler (retired)
  • ASSP: Transport Submarine (retired)
  • APSS: Transport Submarine (retired)
  • LPSS: Amphibious Transport Submarine (retired)
  • SSLP: Transport Submarine (retired)
  • IXSS: Unclassified Miscellaneous Submarine
  • MTS: Moored Training Ship (Naval Nuclear Power School Training Platform reconditioned SSBNs and SSNs)

Patrol combatant type Edit

Patrol combatants are ships whose mission may extend beyond coastal duties and whose characteristics include adequate endurance and seakeeping, providing a capability for operations exceeding 48 hours on the high seas without support. This notably included Brown Water Navy/Riverine Forces during the Vietnam War. Few of these ships are in service today.

  • PBR: Patrol Boat, River, Brown Water Navy (Pibber or PBR-Vietnam)
  • PC: Coastal Patrol, originally Sub Chaser
  • PCF: Patrol Craft, Fast Swift Boat, Brown Water Navy (Vietnam)
  • PE: Eagle Boat of World War I
  • PF: World War II Frigate, based on British River class.
    • PFG: Original designation of USS Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7)

    Amphibious warfare type Edit

    Amphibious warfare vessels include all ships having an organic capability for amphibious warfare and which have characteristics enabling long duration operations on the high seas. There are two classifications of craft: amphibious warfare ships which are built to cross oceans, and landing craft, which are designed to take troops from ship to shore in an invasion.

    • An LSD has a helicopter deck.
    • An LPD has a hangar in addition to the helicopter deck.
    • An LHD or LHA has a full-length flight deck. [23]
    • AKA: Attack Cargo Ship (To LKA, 1969)
    • APA: Attack Transport (To LPA, 1969)
    • APD: High speed transport (Converted Destroyer or Destroyer Escort) (To LPR, 1969)
    • AGC: Amphibious Force Flagship (To LCC, 1969)
    • LCC: Amphibious Command Ship, also known as Landing Craft, Control
    • LHA: General-Purpose Amphibious Assault Ship, also known as Landing ship, Helicopter, Assault
    • LHD: Multi-Purpose Amphibious Assault Ship, also known as Landing ship, Helicopter, Dock
    • LKA: Amphibious Cargo Ship (out of commission)
    • LPA: Amphibious Transport
    • LPD: Amphibious transport dock, also known as Landing ship, Personnel, Dock
    • LPH: Landing ship, Personnel, Helicopter[24]
    • LPR: High speed transport
    • LSD: Landing Ship, Dock
    • LSH: Landing Ship, Heavy
    • LSIL: Landing Ship, Infantry (Large) (formerly LCIL)
    • LSL: Landing Ship, Logistics
    • LSM: Landing Ship, Medium
    • LSM(R): Landing Ship, Medium (Rocket)
    • LSSL: Landing Ship, Support (Large) (formerly LCSL)
    • LST: Landing Ship, Tank
    • LST(H): Landing Ship, Tank (Hospital)
    • LSV: Landing Ship, Vehicle
    • LCA: Landing Craft, Assault
    • LCAC: Landing Craft Air Cushion
    • LCFF: (Flotilla Flagship)
    • LCH: Landing Craft, Heavy
    • LCI: Landing Craft, Infantry, World War II-era classification further modified by
      • (G) – Gunboat
      • (L) – Large
      • (M) – Mortar
      • (R) – Rocket

      Expeditionary support Edit

      Operated by Military Sealift Command, have ship prefix "USNS", hull code begins with "T-".

      • ESD: Expeditionary Transfer Dock
      • ESB: Expeditionary Mobile Base (a variant of ESD, formerly AFSB)
      • EPF: Expeditionary fast transport
      • MLP: Mobile landing platform (changed to ESD)
      • JHSV: Joint high-speed vessel (changed to EPF)
      • HST: High-speed transport (similar to JHSV, not to be confused with WWII-era High-speed transport (APD))
      • HSV: High-speed vessel

      Combat logistics type Edit

      Ships which have the capability to provide underway replenishment to fleet units.

      • AC: Collier (retired)
      • AE: Ammunition ship
      • AF: Stores ship (retired)
      • AFS: Combat stores ship
      • AKE: Advanced dry cargo ship
      • AKS: General stores ship
      • AO: Fleet Oiler
      • AOE: Fast combat support ship
      • AOR: Replenishment oiler
      • AW: Distilling ship (retired)

      Mine warfare type Edit

      Mine warfare ships are those ships whose primary function is mine warfare on the high seas.

      • ADG: Degaussing ship
      • AM: Minesweeper
      • AMb: Harbor minesweeper
      • AMc: Coastal minesweeper
      • AMCU: Underwater mine locater
      • AMS: Motor minesweeper
      • CM: Cruiser (i.e., large) minelayer
      • CMc: Coastal minelayer
      • DM: High-speed minelayer (converted destroyer)
      • DMS: High-speed minesweeper (converted-destroyer)
      • MCM: Mine countermeasures ship
      • MCS: Mine countermeasures support ship
      • MH(C)(I)(O)(S): Minehunter, (coastal) (inshore) (ocean) (hunter and sweeper, general)
      • MLC: Coastal minelayer
      • MSC: Minesweeper, coastal
      • MSO: Minesweeper, ocean
      • PCS: Submarine chasers (wooden) fitted for minesweeping [25]
      • YDG: District degaussing vessel

      Coastal defense type Edit

      Coastal defense ships are those whose primary function is coastal patrol and interdiction.

      • FS: Corvette
      • PB: Patrol boat
      • PBR: Patrol boat, river
      • PC: Patrol, coastal
      • PCE: Patrol craft, escort
      • PCF: Patrol craft, fast, (swift boat)
      • PCS: Patrol craft, sweeper (modified-motor minesweepers meant for anti-submarine warfare)
      • PF: Frigate, in a role similar to World War II Commonwealth corvette
      • PG: Patrol gunboat
      • PGM: Motor gunboat (To PG, 1967)
      • PR: Patrol, river
      • SP: Section patrol

      Mobile logistics type Edit

      Mobile logistics ships have the capability to provide direct material support to other deployed units operating far from home ports.

      Auxiliary type Edit

      An auxiliary ship is designed to operate in any number of roles supporting combatant ships and other naval operations.

      • AN: Net laying ship
      • ARL: Auxiliary repair light—light craft or landing craft repair ship (World War II-era, out of commission)
      • ATF: Fleet ocean tug
      • AGHS: Patrol combatant support ship—ocean or inshore

      Airships Edit

      Although technically an aircraft, pre-World War II rigid airships (e.g., zeppelins) were treated like commissioned surface warships and submarines, flew the U.S. ensign from their stern and carried a United States Ship (USS) designation. Non-rigid airships (e.g., blimps) continued to fly the U.S. ensign from their stern but were always considered to be primarily aircraft.

      • ZMC: Airship metal clad
      • ZNN-G: G-class blimp
      • ZNN-J: J-class blimp
      • ZNN-L: L-class blimp
      • ZNP-K: K-class blimp
      • ZNP-M: M-class blimp
      • ZNP-N: N-class blimp
      • ZPG-3W: surveillance patrol blimp
      • ZR: Rigid airship
      • ZRS: Rigid airship scout

      Support ships Edit

      Support ships are not designed to participate in combat and are generally not armed. For ships with civilian crews (owned by and/or operated for Military Sealift Command and the Maritime Administration), the prefix T- is placed at the front of the hull classification.

      Support type Edit

      Support ships are designed to operate in the open ocean in a variety of sea states to provide general support to either combatant forces or shore-based establishments. They include smaller auxiliaries which, by the nature of their duties, leave inshore waters.

      • AC: Collier (retired)
      • ACS: Auxiliary Crane Ship
      • AG: Miscellaneous Auxiliary
      • AGDE: Testing Ocean Escort
      • AGDS: Deep Submergence Support Ship
      • AGER (i): Miscellaneous Auxiliary, Electronic Reconnaissance
      • AGER (ii): Environmental Research Ship
      • AGF: Miscellaneous Command Ship
      • AGFF: Testing Frigate
      • AGL: Auxiliary vessel, lighthouse tender
      • AGM: Missile Range Instrumentation Ship
      • AGOR: Oceanographic Research Ship
      • AGOS: Ocean Surveillance Ship
      • AGP: Motor Torpedo Boat Tender
      • AGR: Radar picket ship
      • AGS: Surveying Ship
      • AGSE: Submarine and Special Warfare Support
      • AGSS: Auxiliary Research Submarine
      • AGTR: Technical research ship
      • AH: Hospital ship
      • AK: Cargo Ship
      • AKR: Vehicle Cargo Ship
      • AKS: General Stores Issue Ship
      • AKV: Cargo Ship and Aircraft Ferry
      • AO: Oiler
      • AOE: Fast Combat Support Ship
      • AOR: Replenishment oiler (retired)
      • AOG: Gasoline Tanker
      • AOT: Transport Oiler
      • AP: Transport
      • ARC: Cable Repair Ship (see also Cable layer)
      • ARG: Internal Combustion Engine repair ship
      • APB: Self-propelled Barracks Ship
      • APL: Barracks Craft
      • ARB: Battle Damage Repair Ship
      • ARL: Small Repair Ship
      • ARS: Salvage Ship
      • AS: Submarine tender
      • ASR: Submarine Rescue Ship
      • AT: Ocean-Going Tug
      • ATA: Auxiliary Ocean Tug
      • ATF: Fleet Ocean Tug
      • ATLS: Drone Launch Ship
      • ATS: Salvage and Rescue Ship
      • AVB(i): Aviation Logistics Support Ship
      • AVB(ii): Advance Aviation Base Ship
      • AVS: Aviation Stores Issue Ship
      • AVT(i): Auxiliary Aircraft Transport
      • AVT(ii): Auxiliary Aircraft Landing Training Ship
      • EPCER: Experimental – Patrol Craft Escort – Rescue
      • ID or Id. No.: Civilian ship taken into service for auxiliary duties, used indiscriminately for large ocean-going ships of all kinds and coastal and yard craft (World War I retired 1920)
      • PCER: Patrol Craft Escort – Rescue [26]
      • SBX: Sea-based X-band Radar – a mobile active electronically scanned arrayearly-warning radar station.

      Service type craft Edit

      Service craft are navy-subordinated craft (including non-self-propelled) designed to provide general support to either combatant forces or shore-based establishments. The suffix "N" refers to non-self-propelled variants.

      Aircraft Carriers

      The ex-collier USS Langley AC-3 was rebuilt and recommissioned as the first US aircraft carrier CV-1 on 20 March 1922. The CVB designation was approved by the Secretary of the Navy on 10 June 1943 and the CVL designation was approved on 15 July 1943. The CVS designation was established in 1953 with USS Bunker Hill (CVS-17) being the first so designated on 8 August 1953, although she was in reserve at the time and never did recommission. The designation CVA replaced both CV and CVB on 1 October 1952. CVL went out of use on 15 May 1959 when the last light carrier was decommissioned. With the decommissioning of the last CVS in 1974, CV and CVN replaced CVA and CVAN on 30 June 1975 as carriers were now considered to be multi-mission capable rather than specialized. The CV (non-nuclear) designation went out of service when the last conventionally powered carrier, USS Kitty Hawk CV-63, was decommissioned on 12 May 2009.

      Escort Aircraft Carriers were originally designated AVG (Escort Carrier, Auxiliary) on 31 March 1941, with the USS Long Island AVG-1 being the first ship so commissioned on 2 June 1941. This designation was changed on 20 August 1942 to ACV (Aircraft Carrier, Auxiliary), and then changed again on 15 July 1943 to CVE. Escort Carriers built for the British Royal Navy were designated BAVG until they were transferred. The CVE designation went out of use when the remaining escort carriers were reclassified AKV (Auxiliary, Aircraft Ferry) on 7 May 1959.

      A common question is "what does the 'V' stand for in CV or CVA or CVS or CVE?"

      [Thanks to C. Bossie who provided much of the following answer.]

      The following is taken from "United States Naval Aviation 1910-1995, Appendix 16: US Navy and Marine Corps Squadron Designations and Abbreviations":

      In European NATO Countries, "R" is used to designate an aircraft carrier.

      • Destroyers
          - 2x1 Bofors 3.9" guns, 2x1 21" torpedo tubes - A lucky and famous little ship!
        • from Recognition Journal as of Sep43 and (for the Rudderow/Butler/Samuel B. Roberts DEs) from ONI 222 as of 1945.
    • Battleships (BB)
      • Old Battleships, as of 1943
          - 6x2 12" guns, see notes for secondaries - 5x2 14" guns, see notes for secondaries - 2x2, 2x3 14" guns, 8x2 5" dual purpose guns - 4x3 14" guns, 8x2 5" dual purpose guns - 4x3 14" guns, see notes for secondaries - 4x3 14" guns, 8x2 5" guns - 4x2 16" guns, 18x1 5" guns
        • - 3x3 16" guns, 10x2 5" guns - with photo - 3x3 16" guns, 8(or 10)x2 5" guns - with photo - 3x3 16" guns, 10x2 5" guns - with photo
      • - 90+ aircraft - with photo - 100+ aircraft - with photo - 1:1800 "2-D model" - 35 aircraft - with photos - 45 aircraft - with photos - 30 aircraft - with photos
    • - 3x3 12" guns, 6x2 5" guns - with photos
    • Northampton class Heavy Cruisers, 1942 and 1945 (CA) - 3x3 8" guns, 8x1 5" guns - with photos - 3x3 8" guns, 8x1 5" guns - with photos - 3x3 8" guns, 8x1 5" guns - with photos (CA) - 3x3 8" guns, 6x2 5" guns - with photo (CL) - 4x3 6" guns, 6x2 5" guns - with photo (CL) - 5x3 6" guns, 8x1 5" guns - with photos (CL) - 5x3 6" guns, 4x2 5" guns - with photos (CL) - 2x2, 6x1 6" guns, 8x1 3" guns - with photo - 8x2 and then 6x2 5" guns. (CL) - 6x2 6" dual purpose guns, many twin 3" guns - with photos
      - 4x1 5" guns, 4x4 21" torpedo tubes - with photos - 5x1 5" guns, 2x5 21" torpedo tubes - with photos - 3x2 5" guns, 2x5 (Gearings, 1x5) 21" torpedo tubes - with photos
    • Small Sideview Drawings of Imperial Japanese Navy Warships:
    • Battleships
        - 4x2 14" guns - 6x2 14" guns, 16x1 6" guns, 4x2 5" guns - 4x2 16" guns
      • - 3x2 8" guns, 4x1 4.7" guns, 2x4 24" torpedo tubes - 5x2 8" guns, 4x1 or 4x2 4.7" guns, 4x4 24" torpedo tubes - 5x2 8" guns, 4x2 4.7" guns, 4x3 24" torpedo tubes - 2x2,2x1 5.5" guns, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - 7x1 5.5" guns, 4x2 21" torpedo tubes
      • Asashio class Super Destroyers - 3x2 5" guns, 2x4 24" reloadable torpedo tubes - 3x2 5" guns, 3x3 24" reloadable torpedo tubes
      • The old Wakatake and Minekaze class Destroyers - 3x1 4.7" guns, 2x2 21" torpedo tubes and 4x1 4.7" guns and 3x2 21" torpedo tubes
        - (591' long, 74' beam) - (503+' long, 65' beam) - (456' long, 58' beam) - (508' long, 62' beam
      • Small Sideview Drawings of Royal Navy Warships:
      • Battleships and Battle Cruisers
          - 4x2 15" guns, 10x2 4.5" guns - 4x2 15" guns, various smaller - 4x2 15" guns, various smaller - 4x2 15" guns, various smaller - 3x2 15" guns, various smaller
        • - 4x2 6" guns, 4x2 4" guns, 2x4 21" torpedo tubes - 4x2 6" guns, 4x2 4" guns, 2x4 21" torpedo tubes - 5x2 5.25" guns, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - New, 11Jun09
          - standard armament: 3x2 4.7" guns, 1x2 4" dual purpose guns, 1x4 2 pdr pom pom antiaircraft guns, 1x4 21" torpedo tubes - standard armament: 3x2 4.7" guns, 1x1 4" antiaircraft gun, quad antiaircraft pom pom, 1x4 21" torpedo tubes - initial armament: 5x1 4.7" guns, 1x1 3" antiaircraft gun, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - later reduced for more antiaircraft and antisubmarine weapons. - initial armament: 4x1 4.7" guns, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - later reduced for more antiaircraft and antisubmarine weapons. - standard armament: 3x2 4" guns, quad antiaircraft pom pom - New, 17May10
          : Roberts Monitor, Hunt Types 1-4 Escort Destroyers, etc.
        • Small Sideview Drawings of Kriegsmarine Warships:
        • Battleships
            - 4x2 15" guns, 6x2 5.9" guns, 8x2 4.1" AA guns, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes
            - 3x3 11" guns, 4x1+4x2 5.9" guns, 7x2 4.1" AA guns
          • - never completed
            - 2x3 11" guns, 8x1 5.9" guns, 3x2 3.5" guns, 2x4 21" torpedo tubes - Same as Luetzow
            - 4x2 8" guns, 6x2 3.5" guns, 4x3 21" torpedo tubes - Same as for Hipper - 3x3 5.9" guns, 3x2 3.5" AA guns, 4x3 21" torpedo tubes - 3x3 5.9" guns, 4x2 3.5" AA guns, 4x3 21" torpedo tubes - 3x3 5.9" guns, 3x2 3.5" guns, 4x3 21" torpedo tubes
            - 5x1 5" guns, 4x2 21" torpedo tubes classes - 5x1 5" guns, 4x2 21" torpedo tubes - 4x1 5.9" guns, 4x2 21" torpedo tubes
            - 2x1 4.1" guns
              - 2x3,2x2 12.6" guns, 6x2 4.7" guns - 2x3,2x2 12.6" guns, 4x3 5.3" guns
              - 4x2 8" guns, various smaller, no torpedo tubes. - 4x2 8" guns, 6x2 3.9" guns, 4x2 21" torpedo tubes - 4x2 8" guns, 8x2 3.9" guns, 4x2 21" torpedo tubes - 4x2 6" guns, 3x2 3.9" guns, 2x2 21" torpedo tubes - 4x2 6" guns, 3x2 3.9" guns, 2x2 21" torpedo tubes - 2x2, 2x3 (10) 6" guns, 4x2 3.9" guns, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - 4x2 5.3" guns, 2x4 21" torpedo tubes
              - 3x2 4.7" guns, 2x2(or3) 21" torpedo tubes
              - 3x1 4" guns, 4x1 18" torpedo tubes
                - 4x3 12" guns, others as shown - Revised, 19Jul09
                - 3x3 7.1" guns, 8x1 2.9" guns 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - New, 22Jul09 - 5x1 5.1" guns, 2x4 21" torpedo tubes - New, 19Jul09
                Battleship and Battle Cruisers
                  - 2x4 15" guns, 3x3" guns, 6x2 3.9" antiaircraft guns - 2x4 13" guns, 3x4, 2x2 5.1" guns, assorted antiaircraft guns - 2x4 13" guns, 3x4, 2x2 5.1" guns, assorted antiaircraft guns
                  - 4x2 8" guns, 6x2 3.9" dual purpose guns, 2x3 21.7" torpedo tubes - 4x2 8" guns, 6x2 3.9" dual purpose guns, 2x3 21.7" torpedo tubes - 4x2 8" guns, 6x2 3.9" dual purpose guns, 2x3 21.7" torpedo tubes - 3x3 6.1" guns, 4x2 3.5" guns, 2x2 21.7" torpedo tubes - 4x2 6.1" guns, 4x1 3" guns, 4x3 21.7" torpedo tubes - 4x2 6.1" guns, 4x1 3" guns, 4x3 21.7" torpedo tubes
                  - 4x1 5.1" guns, 1x4, 2x3 21.7" torpedo tubes - 5x1 5.4" guns, 1x4, 2x3 21.7" torpedo tubes - 4x2 5.1" guns, 1x3, 2x2 21.7" torpedo tubes - 3x2 5.1" guns, 1x3, 2x2 21.7" torpedo tubes
                    - 2x2 11" guns, 6x1 6" guns - New, 12May10
                    - 2x2, 2x1 6" guns, 1x2, 2x1 3" guns, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - New, 12May10
                    - 3x1 4.7" guns, 2x3 21" torpedo tubes - New, 12May10

                  I have the basic FM 30-50/NAVAER 00-80V-57 Recognition Pictorial Manual of Naval Vessels volume, of course, as well as its Supplement No. 1 which contains the large scale plans for the British cruisers and destroyers.
                  The late war German destroyer and torpedoboat and (all the) Soviet plans were found in the July 1, 1950 ONI 200 manual. (Many of the lighter German ships had been awarded to the Soviets and French as war reparations.)
                  I finally found a good quality plan of the SIMS class destroyer in my recently acquired copy of ONI 54, although that may have been inserted as a supplement, in which case I have no idea when or where it was distributed.
                  I also have the late war ONI manual for ALL the Japanese merchant ships -- most having drawings. (The early war edition I interlibrary loaned from MIT lacked drawings for most ships.)
                  I have the presentation version of the ONI manual for Japanese warships, having photos of models taken from different angles, to facilitate recognition by aviators as well as gunnery officers. Those would be much too space-consuming, though.
                  I have gotten a complete copy of the 1943 ONI manual for Italian warships. Unhappily, it omitted the Trieste/Trento heavy cruisers and early/weak Colleoni class light cruisers: they had already been sunk! However, an ONI page for Trieste/Trento popped up in an otherwise incomplete set.
                  I also have the little 1941 War Department recognition booklets for the U.S., British, and French, but those appear to have been little more than reprintings of Jane's drawings which weren't sufficiently accurate.
                  I also picked up a Luftwaffe August 1940 Englische und franzoesische Kriegsschiffe identification book produced by Mittler and Son in Berlin. It too only used Jane's drawings, although presciently cited Hood's weak armor the year before Denmark Straits.

                  And now, 5Jan12, I have at some expense acquired an original ONI 203, French Naval Vessels, Feb43. Although I finally have the ONI plans for both battle cruisers Dunkerque and Strasbourg and heavily armored heavy cruiser Algerie, ONI 203 is disappointing: the only deck and side plans for destroyers were for the Simoun class, and I was hoping for finally having some for the Mogador/Volta and LeHardi heavy and late construction classes. I suspect the scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon in Nov42 removed the need for a more comprehensive coverage in Feb43. Fortunately, there are such plans for the Suffren and Tourville heavy(?) cruiser classes in the 1950 ONI 200, but still .

                  You’ve got F/18s launching from an aircraft carrier, Navy SEALs on fast boats, guys jumping out of a helicopter into the surf — now add a wailing guitar riff and a pulsating drum beat and you have the ingredients for a Navy commercial that almost had me signing up for another 10 years.

                  You’ve also got an epic anthem to keep the troops pumped on those exceptionally long convoys.

                  (GodsmackVEVO | YouTube)Even if you’re no longer jocking up and taking the wheel of some Mad Max-esque war machine to go spread freedom and democracy around the world, you can still rock out to these amazing songs.

                  Every convoy needs some musical motivation. Whether you’re taking the kiddos to school, enjoying a leisurely Sunday drive or simply heading into the office for another day of crushing it, cue up this playlist and have an epic journey.


                  This German dive bomber had a fearsome reputation during the early part of World War II. Are you able to identify it?

                  At the start of the Second World War, the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka was one of the most feared aircraft available to the German Air Force. This ground attack plane used dive bombing techniques to great effect. It was feared, as it also employed wind-driven sirens that would wail on each attack, causing panic for both civilians and enemy soldiers. The Stuka was less effective when used against targets in Britain and many were lost. It was withdrawn and used in combat on the Eastern Front against Russia.


                  The word miscellaneous has only small scope here. It is intended to encompass classifications such as icebreakers and research vessels, many of which are owned by government. Neither type need be of large size, since no cargo is to be carried. However, icebreakers are usually wide in order to make a wide swath through ice, and they have high propulsive power in order to overcome the resistance of the ice layer. Icebreakers also are characterized by strongly sloping bow profiles, especially near the waterline, so that they can wedge their way up onto thick ice and crack it from the static weight placed upon it. To protect the hull against damage, the waterline of the ship must be reinforced by layers of plating and supported by heavy stiffeners.

                  Damage to propellers is also an icebreaking hazard. Propellers are usually given protection by a hull geometry that tends to divert ice from them, and they are often built with individually replaceable blades to minimize the cost of repairing damage. Electric transmission of power between engines and propellers is also common practice, since it allows precise control and an easy diversion of power to another propeller from one that may be jammed by chunks of broken ice.

                  Research vessels are often distinguished externally by cranes and winches for handling nets and small underwater vehicles. Often they are fitted with bow and stern side thrusters in order to enable them to remain in a fixed position relative to the Earth in spite of unfavourable winds and currents. Internally, research vessels are usually characterized by laboratory and living spaces for the research personnel.

                  San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock

                  The San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock is intended to carry hundreds of Marines, vehicles, and equipment for amphibious operations. They also hold carry two MV-22 Osprey tiltrotor aircraft for aerial insertions.

                  The ships have undergone a number of problems. The Department of Defense issued a report in 2010 that they could only operate "in a benign environment," and not in combat situations.

                  There are currently 11 San Antonio-class ships in service, with two more on the way.

                  18 Different Types of Aircrafts, Classifications, and More: A Guide!

                  What are air crafts and which are types of aircrafts, you know? Most of us will only answer the common ones – airplanes and helicopters. Well, yes, you are not wrong. Airplanes and helicopters are the most common types of aircrafts we may know. But what you may miss out on are different and several other categories in aircraft that you may not know.

                  From helicopters to gliders to cargo planes, fighter jets, balloons, and more, there are numerous other aircraft types and categories we must all know. Let’s find and learn all about them today.

                  What Is The Aircraft?

                  Any vehicle that is manufactured and made to fly in the air is called an aircraft. While the airplane is the most known, familiar, and popular kind of aircraft we know, other vessels that fly through the air also come in this category. All of them have propellers and wings or machinery to run through the air however, they may vary according to sizes, types, usage, and more.

                  Classifications Of Aircraft:

                  Before we get into knowing and studying different types of aircrafts, let us understand how are these aircrafts classified. In most common terms, there are two types of classifications for aircrafts. One is lighter than air aircrafts, known as aerostats, and the other is heavier than air aircrafts, called aerodynes.

                  Aerostats (Lighter Than Air): Aerostats or lighter than air aircrafts are very more lightweight in weight. These types of light aircraft generally use buoyancy like ships, which help them float in the air. Low-density gas such as hydrogen, helium, or hot air balloons is used to fill in the aircraft. This low-density gas is lighter than air, and hence the name. The most common types of aerostats known to us are hot air balloons and sky lanterns.

                  Aerodynes (Heavier Than Air): Alternatively, the other aircraft, heavier than air or aerodynes, as we understand, is much higher in weight and size. They push the gas or air downwards which reaction helps to make aircraft upwards. Since these are dynamic through movements in the air, they are called aerodynes. This dynamic lift through the air can be caused mostly through mechanisms, as you must have already known.

                  • One is the fixed-wing classification, just like planes. In this category of fixed-wing aircraft, the entire mechanism is relied upon forward speed to create airflow all over wings.
                  • Another mechanism is rotorcraft, which uses spinning rotors that are like wings. The helicopter is the most commonly known aircraft under this classification.

                  Types Of Aircrafts In The World:

                  Now that we know the most common classification, categories, and subcategories under the aircrafts, let us see different types of aircrafts and a list of all aircraft with pictures.

                  1. Amphibious:

                  Amphibious aircraft, otherwise also popularly known as amphibian is a multipurpose aircraft which can work, take off and land both water and ground. They are used as both seaplanes or flying boats, or also airplanes. In this aircraft, the engine is either placed in front, or even above the wing, that is most commonly found in floatplanes, On the other hand, the modern and other amphibious aircraft have engine and propeller placed above the wings. The size of amphibians differs as per the purpose there are military amphibians, leisure purpose seaplanes, and civil amphibious aircraft.

                  2. Helicopters:

                  Helicopter aircraft, also known as a chopper, is commonly known to most of us and belongs to rotorcrafts. Horizontally spinning rotors help and aid the helicopter to lift and thrust. These aircraft have the advantage of taking vertically, horizontally, and fly both backward and forward or laterally. Unlike the other fixed-wing aircraft, these benefit from taking off and land at several places and flying even in congested areas. The engine depends on the size, purpose, and function of the chopper. Today, the helicopter is mostly used for military purposes, cargo, construction, rescue, tourism, aerial observation, and the government. The size of the chopper hence mostly depends on the usage.

                  [See More: Airports Of India]

                  3. Multi-Engine Piston:

                  As the name suggests, Multiple or Multi-engine piston aircraft has more than one single-engine, unlike the other categories and types of aircraft. These multi-engine pistons are known to have a second power source, which is greatly helpful during another engine’s failure. Due to this multiple power and engine facility, the aircraft-quality, capacity, speed, and climb rate is much higher than the usual air crafts. In most cases, this kind of aircraft is used by air service for their services and duties.

                  4. Biplanes:

                  Biplanes come under the category of fixed-wing aircraft. In this category, two wings come one above each other on both sides. This kind of plane is among the first aircraft to discover fixed-wing planes. The biplanes have lower weight but with excellent stiffness and efficiency. The biplanes are fitted with reciprocating engines. Only two adults, in most cases, can do these. In most cases, biplanes are spotted and used for army and military purposes of specific countries. These aircraft were among the most commonly used ones during world war times.

                  5. Balloons:

                  The balloon type aircraft are standard aircrafts most of us are aware of and are mostly spotted during tourist activities. It comes under a kind of aircraft that floats in the sky and is much different from other airships and aircraft categories. While most confuse them with airships, the balloons are distinct in that they do not possess any engine and cannot change their direction, except for up and down. The balloon’s top is called an envelope, and the bottom part is a basket where people can sit. The most common ones in the category of balloons are hot air balloons.

                  6. Gliders:

                  Gliders come again under the category of fixed-wing aircraft. The types of gliders aircraft are used through air reaction against lifting surfaces and mostly do not use any engine. Although small engines may be used as required (in cases like a motor glider), most glider aircraft are efficient for self-take without engines. A wheeled undercarriage helps in take-off or landing. In the past, gliders are used for military purposes and wars however, nowadays, we even see them in tourist activities and entertainment or leisure. The most common types in this category include hand gliders and paragliders. Most gliders are small in size and can fit a maximum of two people.

                  7. Gyroplanes:

                  Gyroplanes, also known as autogyro or gyrocopter, is a rotorcraft aircraft category that uses rotor machines to lift. They are similar to helicopter in appearance, although a bit narrow, and have an engine-driven propeller. The air flows help the gyroplanes lift upwards, and the rotor self-propels as per the way air flows through it. While gyroplanes or autogyros are mostly used for military and war purposes during the 20th century, nowadays, they are spotted in Olympics and police departments at some states.

                  8. Parachutes:

                  Parachutes are the most common types we often hear and see. They are slow-moving air flowing craft that helps move through, creating drag to land. They are made through lightweight yet stable and fitting fabric such as nylon or silk. Most parachutes may be in the shapes of round, dome, or inverted dome. Although most parachutes are spotted during leisure activities and entertainment, they are also used and deployed by state and operations during expeditions to ice areas such as polar ends. Only one or two maximum can fit in one parachute.

                  9. Single Engine Piston Aircraft:

                  Like the multi-engine piston plane, we have seen earlier. This aircraft uses only one engine. These aircraft are used for shorter distance works and not for heavy works. They can access smaller runways, takes less space, and has lesser climb and speed. Most single-engine pistons can fit only four to six people, depending on the plane and size.

                  10. Tricycle Gear Aircraft:

                  The tricycle gear aircraft is a kind of plane that has tricycle fashion fixed landing gear. The arrangement has a nose wheel in the front and two more in the main wheels. These are lightweight and are known to have better visibility of the ground, and is very easy to take off and land. The aircraft also has significantly less drag and allows the application of a full brake. They are used for lighter and quick uses, given the advantages of easy runs.

                  11. Business Jets:

                  Business or private jet aircraft are known to be among the luxurious or unique aircraft to transport and fly a small group of people, even individuals. While they are costly due to their design, plush appearance, and very sophisticated looks, the business jets are used by different classes of people – from government officials to armed forces for special operations to companies and private ownership. While the speed, engine, and other manufacturing are similar to airplanes, the size differs from lightweight or small jets to mid-sized ones to long business jets. The heavy and long jets can accommodate 16 to 18 people, whereas the mid-size (depending on the capacity) can accommodate up to 12 or 10 people. The smaller types of business aircraft are only for four to six individuals.

                  12. Taildraggers:

                  Taildraggers, also known as tail-wheel type gear draggers, consists of two main wheels at the forward size and a small-sized wheel to skid near the tail area. These are the conventional aircraft variety which uses such gear draggers instead of the modern tricycle propeller aircraft. These are the much lighter size and weight aircraft and can even be operated in skis. However, they have very poor visibility on the ground and are difficult during heavy wind conditions.

                  13. Tiltrotors:

                  Tiltrotors use powered rotors for propulsion and to generate lift. These powered rotors, also called proprotors, are added to rotating shafts of a fixed-wing. These use transverse rotor design and combines the vertical lift capability of a helicopter. The rotors, similar to the chopper, helps lift this aircraft. However, the propulsion is much more efficient and can avoid retreating blade stall, commonly seen in choppers. The speed and range are heavier and higher than a normal helicopter and almost near a fixed-wing aircraft. The altitude capability of tiltrotors is higher than helicopters.

                  14. Light-Sport Aircraft:

                  The light-sport aircraft, also known as LSA, differs from country to country. However, they are into the new category of small and very lightweight aircraft. These are super simpler to fly. Although they may be a bit heavier than ultralight aircraft, they are sophisticated, looks grand. These are two-seater versions and are much affordable too.

                  15. Turboprops:

                  As the name suggests, turboprops or turboprop aircraft have gas turbine engines connected to the gears to turn the propeller to move them through and around the air. They burn much lesser fuels and have lesser operating costs too. These types of turboprops are larger than piston aircraft and can carry more passengers. These also fly high and can go to an altitude of 35000 feet. However, they are slower in speed than jet planes. The turboprops size varies according to the need and can fit a small set of people or up to eight or ten at maximum.

                  16. Floatplanes:

                  The floatplanes are similar to seaplanes, which floats on water through the floats mounted under the fuselage. These mounts are added instead of the undercarriage, where wheels are placed in other planes. These do not have landing gear, which makes it possible to land, in which case it becomes similar to amphibious aircraft (as seen earlier). Seaplanes or floatplanes are heavily used during world war times for military operations however, now is witnessed more of a pleasure flight in many countries.

                  17. Fighter jets:

                  Fighter jets, also known as a fighter or fighter aircraft, is military particular fixed-wing aircraft. They are designed only to use for combatting air to air fights against other aircraft. They have very high speed, manufactured for use against air attacks only. However, few fighters have a second capacity to use for ground attacks, too, in which case they are known as fighter bombers. There are several categories in the fighters: light fighter, heavy fighter, interceptor, night fighter, all-weather fighter, and more. With the help of technological advances and breakthroughs, today’s fighters have numerous other capacities and innovations such as data transmissions, sensors, secure cockpits, high bandwidth, and more.

                  18. Cargo planes:

                  Cargo aircraft or cargo planes are also known as freight aircraft, airlifter, or cargo jets. These are the fixed-wing classification of aircraft known only for carriage or cargo instead of individual passengers. These cargos are specially built only for lifting carriages and do not have amenities for fitting people or passengers. They have wide doors and facilities to protect and provide shipment. Unlike usual passenger jets, the high-wings presence allows to preserve and make the cargo sit near the ground. The number of wheels is also more in cargo jets. These cargo aircraft can be used both for civil purposes as well as military usage.

                  Most of us did not know the presence of several such types of aircrafts around us. We hope this informative guide helped you gain knowledge and awareness of different kinds of aircraft, classifications, and categories.


                  This article should be used only for the informatory purpose. The author shall not guarantee and is responsible for the accuracy of the content in the article. The information provided is extracted from several sources, which may or may not be sufficient.

                  Naming Ships

                  Starting at the beginning of the 20th Century, the Navy's ships were named in accordance with a system, tailored to ship types. Names of states, for example, were borne by battleships. Cruisers were named for cities while destroyers came to be named for American naval leaders and heroes, as today's destroyers are still named. Starting in 1931 submarines were named for "fish and denizens of the deep." As World War II ship construction programs included new types of ships requiring new name sources and other classes required a modification of existing name sources to meet a perceived shortage of "appropriate" names. Mass-produced antisubmarine patrol and escort ships were named in honor of members of the naval service killed in action in World War II. Some were named for destroyers lost in the early stages of that war. Ships lost in wartime were normally honored by having their names reassigned to new construction. During World War II the names of individuals were once again assigned to aircraft carriers.

                  Type: World War II Current
                  Aircraft Carriers: Amphibious Assault
                  Amphibious Assault, Helicopter LPH Famous USMC battles
                  Amphibious Assault, Aviation LHA
                  Amphibious Assault, Dock LHD Famous aircraft carriers
                  Landing Ships & Craft:
                  Amphibious Transport, Dock LPD Cities honoring pioneers
                  Landing Ship, Dock LSD Historic sites
                  Landing Ship, Tank LST none Cities
                  Landing Ship, Vehicle LSV Old Monitors of USN
                  Battleship BB States of the Union
                  Large Cruiser CB Territories & possessions
                  Heavy Cruiser CA Cities & towns
                  Light Cruiser CL Cities & towns
                  Guided Missile Cruiser CG Distinguished Americans
                  Famous battles
                  Nuclear Guided Missile Cruiser CGN Distinguished Americans
                  States of the Union
                  Destroyer Escort DE Distinguished USN/USMC officers & enlisted men
                  Destroyer DD Distinguished USN/USMC officers & enlisted men
                  Guided Missile Destroyer DDG
                  Frigate FF
                  Guided Missile Frigate FFG
                  Submarine SS Fish and marine creatures
                  Nuclear Submarine SSN Fish and marine creatures
                  Cities & towns
                  States of the Union
                  Ballistic Missile Submarine SSBN Presidents
                  Distinguished Americans
                  States of the Union
                  Minelayers & Coastal Minelayer CM Old monitors of USN
                  Light Minelayer DM
                  Auxiliary Minelayer ACM Obstructions
                  Minewsweeper AM Birds
                  abstract qualities
                  word of action
                  Coastal Minewsweeper AMc
                  Fast Minewsweeper DMS
                  Mine Countermeasures Support Ship MCS Famous USMC battle
                  Mine Countermeasures Ship MCM abstract qualities
                  word of action
                  Coastal Mine Hunter MHC Birds
                  Patrol Craft:
                  Frigate PF Cities & towns
                  Gunboat PG
                  River Gunboat PR Islands
                  Converted Yacht PG Precious & semi-precious stones
                  general words
                  Smaller Converted Yacht PY
                  Coastal Yacht PYc
                  Crane Ship AB
                  "Crane Ship No. 1" State nicknames
                  Destroyer Tender AD Geographical areas of the US
                  Ammunition Ship AE Volcanoes Volcanoes
                  words denoting fire and explosives
                  Provision Store Ship AF Stars
                  Combat Stores Ship AFS Cities
                  Mythological figures
                  Amphibious Force Command Ship AGC
                  MTB Tender AGP Mythological figures
                  Surveying Ship AGS Distinguished marine surveyors
                  Hospital Ship
                  Hospital Ship AH Peaceful or comforting words
                  Cargo Ship:
                  Cargo Ship AK Stars
                  counties of the US
                  Medal of Honor recipients
                  various other names
                  Cargo Ship, RO/RO AKR Stars
                  various other names
                  Attack Cargo Ship AKA Counties of the US
                  Net Cargo Ship AKN Stars
                  counties of the US
                  General Stores Issue Ship AKS Stars
                  Cargo Ships and Aircraft Ferry AKV Places associated with aviation history
                  Net-Laying Ship
                  Net-Laying Ship AN Trees or old USN monitors
                  Oilers & Tankers:
                  Oiler AO Rivers Rivers
                  Famous battles
                  famous ship designers or builders
                  Gasoline Tanker AOG
                  Transport Oiler AOT various names
                  Fast Combat Support Ship AOE Cities
                  various other names
                  Transport AP Presidents
                  Signers of Declaration of Independence
                  distinguished generals & admirals
                  famous women
                  historic places
                  Attack Transport APA Counties of the US
                  Evacuation Transport APH Surgeons General of the USN
                  Barracks Ship APL famous hotels
                  Aircraft Ferry APV Places associated with aviation history
                  Repair Ships:
                  Cable Repairing Ship ARC Mythological figures
                  Repair Ship AR Mythological figures
                  Landing Craft / Light Repair Ship ARL
                  Battle-Damage Repair Ship ARB
                  Heavy Hull Repair Ship ARH
                  Internal Combustion Engine Repair Ship ARG Islands
                  Salvage Vessel ARS Terms associated with marine salvage
                  Submarine Tenders & Rescue Vessels:
                  Submarine Tender AS Submarine pioneers
                  mythological figures
                  Submarine pioneers
                  Submarine Rescue Vessel ASR Birds
                  Auxiliary Tug ATA Indian Tribes
                  Fleet Ocean Tug ATF
                  Seaplane Tenders:
                  Seaplane Tender AV Aviation pioneers
                  bays, sounds & straits
                  Small Seaplane Tender AVP Birds

                  Over time, this system has evolved beyond recognition, due in no small measure to the evolution of modern ships. Today's "destroyers" such the DDG-51 class are nearly as large as the Battleships of the early 20th Century. Although the absence of armor has reduced displacement by a factor of four, a modern "destroyer" is only a few dozen feet shorter than what passed for a capital ship for much of the 20th Century, and modern ships surely make up in firepower, speed, and sensor capabilities what they may lack in raw tonnage. Hence names that may have sufficed for ships of a particular class decades ago may no longer do justice to the magnificence of their current counterparts.

                  • USS Arleigh Burke (DDG 51)
                  • USS Hyman G. Rickover (SSN 709)
                  • USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76)
                  • USNS Bob Hope (T-AKR 300)
                  • USS Jimmy Carter (SSN 23)

                  This lack of discipline in distinguishing between the quick and the dead has been utterly overwhelmed in recently years by the promiscuous distribution of names among various classes of ships. One of the chief benefits of the classical naming system that flourished during the Second World War was the precision with which the name of a ship defined the ship's class, no small matter with a Navy boasting thousands of ships. The elegance of the system in which battleships were named for states, battle-cruisers for territories, large cruisers for large cities and light cruisers for small cities is difficult to exceed. But as the 600-ship Navy has evolved into the 300-ship Navy, it would seem that a presumption has arisen that one should be on a first-name basis with each ship of the fleet, and that no further introductions should be required. Half a century ago, there would be no doubt that a ship named after a state of the Union was a battleship, whereas today a ship with such a name might be whatever class of ship found favor with the Navy at the moment. This situation has reached absurd proportions with the SSN-21 class, the three units of which are named after a denizen of the deep, a state of the Union, and a President. This problem is not entirely an esthetic one, though the esthetics are the matter are difficult to ignore. As the Navy is increasingly called upon to operate in a joint environment, the services's increasingly confusing ship nomenclature will only compound interoperability problems [indeed, one may wonder how many Army and Air Force personnel are aware that there is, in principle, some system by which the Navy names its various ships].

                  Name: World War II Current
                  Admirals Nuclear Aircraft Carrier
                  Nuclear Submarine
                  Comedians Cargo Ship, RO/RO
                  Distinguished USN/USMC
                  officers & enlisted men
                  Destroyer Escort
                  Nuclear Guided Missile Cruiser
                  Guided Missile Destroyer
                  Guided Missile Frigate
                  Distinguished Americans Guided Missile Cruiser
                  Politicians Nuclear Aircraft Carrier
                  Ballistic Missile Submarine
                  Presidents Fleet Aircraft Carriers, Large Nuclear Aircraft Carrier
                  Aircraft Carrier
                  Nuclear Submarine
                  States Battleship Nuclear Guided Missile Cruiser
                  Ballistic Missile Submarine
                  Nuclear Submarine
                  Cities Heavy Cruiser
                  Light Cruiser
                  Nuclear Guided Missile Cruiser
                  Nuclear Submarine
                  Landing Ship, Dock
                  Landing Ship, Tank
                  Combat Stores Ship
                  Fast Combat Support Ship
                  Counties Landing Ship, Tank
                  Historic Sites Landing Ship, Dock Landing Ship, Dock
                  Famous battles Fleet Aircraft Carriers, Large
                  Aircraft Carrier
                  Aircraft Carrier
                  Amphibious Assault, Aviation
                  Guided Missile Cruiser
                  Famous Navy ships Aircraft Carrier Nuclear Aircraft Carrier
                  Aircraft Carrier
                  Amphibious Assault, Dock

                  The present arbitrary ship naming system seems premised on Humpty Dumpty's contention that "When I use a word it means just what I choose it to mean." What is required now is a "Rectification of Names" - the fundamental Confucian idea that language should always bear the same meaning, that the meaning of words ("Names") should be the same for everyone. That is, words should not mean one thing to older people and another thing to younger people, or that the intention of politicians' statements should be the same as the meaning heard by those listening. Confucius treated "rectifying names" as the key to good government:

                  Watch the video: Crazy Seaplanes Type and Size Comparison 3D (November 2022).

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