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What does D·G·R·IMP·S·A·G·H·B·REX·A·A·B·L·D stand for?

What does D·G·R·IMP·S·A·G·H·B·REX·A·A·B·L·D stand for?


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I came across a medal commemorating the coronation of Leopold II as Holy Roman Emperor in 1790.

The inscription on the obverse of the medal is:

LEOPOLDUS II D·G·R·IMP·S·A·G·H·B·REX·A·A·B·L·D·

With so many interpuncts in the inscription it is clear to me that Leopold II had many titles, though it seems that the medallist heavily abbreviated almost all of them. What are the titles that the inscription mentions?

Here is a picture of the medal in case I messed up one of the interpuncts: The image was taken by me.


The inscriptionLEOPOLDUS II D·G·R·IMP·S·A·G·H·B·REX·A·A·B·L·Dabbreviates the following:

Leopoldus Secundus, Dei gratia Romanorum imperator semper augustus; Germaniae, Hungariae, Bohemiae rex; Archidux Austriae; Burgundiae et Lotharingiae dux

These refer to, in order, his titles of:

  • By Grace of God, Holy Roman Emperor, the always august
  • King of Germany, Hungary and Bohemia,
  • Archduke of Austria,
  • Duke of Burgundy and Lorraine

Note that this is not Leopold II's full title. He held so many kingdoms and duchies it is highly unwieldy to list them all.


Eleven days after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge was appointed as the first Director of the Office of Homeland Security in the White House. The office oversaw and coordinated a comprehensive national strategy to safeguard the country against terrorism and respond to any future attacks.

With the passage of the Homeland Security Act by Congress in November 2002, the Department of Homeland Security formally came into being as a stand-alone, Cabinet-level department to further coordinate and unify national homeland security efforts, opening its doors on March 1, 2003.


Arrested for Violating Segregation Laws

After her refusal to give up her seat, Colvin was arrested on several charges, including violating the city&aposs segregation laws. For several hours, she sat in jail, completely terrified. "I was really afraid, because you just didn&apost know what white people might do at that time," Colvin later said. After her minister paid her bail, she went home where she and her family stayed up all night out of concern for possible retaliation.

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People briefly considered using Colvin&aposs case to challenge the segregation laws, but they decided against it because of her age. She also had become pregnant and they thought an unwed mother would attract too much negative attention in a public legal battle. Her son, Raymond, was born in March 1956.

In court, Colvin opposed the segregation law by declaring herself not guilty. The court, however, ruled against her and put her on probation. Despite the light sentence, Colvin could not escape the court of public opinion. The once-quiet student was branded a troublemaker by some, and she had to drop out of college. Her reputation also made it impossible for her to find a job.


What does D·G·R·IMP·S·A·G·H·B·REX·A·A·B·L·D stand for? - History

Building on a lifetime of public service, President Clinton established the Clinton Foundation on the simple belief that everyone deserves a chance to succeed, everyone has a responsibility to act, and we all do better when we work together. For nearly two decades, those values have energized the work of the Foundation in overcoming complex challenges and improving the lives of people across the United States and around the world.

As an operating foundation, we work on issues directly or with strategic partners from the business, government, and nonprofit sectors to create economic opportunity, improve public health, and inspire civic engagement and service. Our programs are designed to make a real difference today while serving as proven models for tomorrow. The goal of every effort is to use available resources to get better results faster – at the lowest possible cost.

We firmly believe that when diverse groups of people bring resources together in the spirit of true cooperation, transformative ideas will emerge to drive life-changing action.

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To fulfill this mission, the Clinton Foundation works with strategic partners to develop and implement programs that create economic opportunity, improve public health, and inspire civic engagement and service.

Within these three programmatic areas, our work ranges from helping farmers in Africa increase their yields and incomes to mobilizing relief efforts in the wake of natural disasters from confronting public health crises such as HIV/AIDS, the opioid epidemic, heart disease, diabetes, and childhood obesity to combating the effects of climate change in the Caribbean through clean and renewable energy efforts.

In addition, the Foundation is committed to cultivating a diverse, new generation of leaders. This includes programs that help students create change on their college campuses support networks that foster women’s leadership in the renewable energy and artisan sectors and a historic partnership between the presidential libraries of President Clinton, President George W. Bush, George H.W. Bush, and Lyndon B. Johnson to cultivate promising leaders from the business, academic, public service, nonprofit, and military sectors as they seek to create positive change on the issues confronting their communities.

The Foundation also operates the Clinton Presidential Center in Little Rock, which provides year-round cultural and educational opportunities and is home to the Clinton Presidential Library and Museum, one of the largest archival collections in American presidential history.


Kelly JF, Renner JA. Alcohol-related disorders. In: Stern TA, Fava M, Wilens TE, Rosenbaum JF, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier 2016:chap 26.

Mirijello A, D'Angelo C, Ferrulli A, et al. Identification and management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Drugs. 201575(4):353-365. PMID: 25666543 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25666543.

O'Connor PG. Alcohol use disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders 2016:chap 33.


Volume licensed versions of Office 2019

The following information applies to volume licensed versions of Office 2019, such as Office Professional Plus 2019, purchased through a volume licensing agreement.

Release date Version number
June 8, 2021 Version 1808 (Build 10375.20036)
May 11, 2021 Version 1808 (Build 10374.20040)
April 13, 2021 Version 1808 (Build 10373.20050)
March 9, 2021 Version 1808 (Build 10372.20060)
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Older Versions
Release date Version number
December 8, 2020 Version 1808 (Build 10369.20032)
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March 10, 2020 Version 1808 (Build 10357.20081)
February 11, 2020 Version 1808 (Build 10356.20006)


What does D·G·R·IMP·S·A·G·H·B·REX·A·A·B·L·D stand for? - History

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A tuning fork is a tool for tuning musical instruments. It was invented by a trumpet player named John Shore (1662-1751). The tuning fork is composed of a handle attached to the center of a U-shaped steel rod. By striking the rod, sound is created, and the frequency of the resulting vibrations per second is used as a standard for tuning a musical instrument. The three tuning forks of the Yamaha Logo represent the cooperative relationship that links the three pillars of our business -- technology, production, and sales. They also evoke the robust vitality that has forged our reputation for sound and music the world over, a territory signified by the enclosing circle. The mark also symbolizes the three essential musical elements: melody, harmony, and rhythm.

This is the design with a "Ho-oh" (Chinese phoenix) holding a tuning fork in its mouth, which was established as the trademark in 1898, one year after Nippon Gakki Co., Ltd. was established.
The mark was known for being used on top quality organs, which illustrates how the Founder always aimed to create world-class products.


  1. On your mobile device, open the Google Play Store app .
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Note: Order numbers aren't available on Google Play at this time. If you need your order number to request a refund, follow the instructions under "Using pay.google.com" below.

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History of ICE

Despite U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s relatively young age, its functional history – encompassing the broad roles, responsibilities and federal statutes now carried out and enforced by the men and women of ICE – predates the modern birth of the agency by more than 200 years.

This informative video describes the conditions that gave rise to legislation authorizing the collection of import taxes and customs fees first envisioned by founding father Alexander Hamilton, the nation’s first secretary of the Treasury. It traces the remarkable development of the country throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, including the essential role of immigration and the evolving laws and regulations that governed it through a period of rapid growth and expansion.

In March 2003, the Homeland Security Act set into motion what would be the single-largest government reorganization since the creation of the Department of Defense. One of the agencies in the new Department of Homeland Security was the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement, now known as U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, or ICE.

Congress granted ICE a unique combination of civil and criminal authorities to better protect national security and public safety in answer to the tragic events on 9/11. Leveraging those authorities, ICE's primary mission is to promote homeland security and public safety through the criminal and civil enforcement of federal laws governing border control, customs, trade and immigration.

ICE now has more than 20,000 law enforcement and support personnel in more than 400 offices in the United States and around the world. The agency has an annual budget of approximately $8 billion, primarily devoted to three operational directorates – Homeland Security Investigations (HSI), Enforcement and Removal Operations (ERO) and Office of the Principal Legal Advisor (OPLA). A fourth directorate – Management and Administration – supports the three operational branches to advance the ICE mission.


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